Session List

Program data is as of April 19.

Underlined names denote speakers.

Boxed numbers denote English Presentations.

In the session with more than 5 presentations, there is 10-min-break after the third presentation.

  • Session No.1 The Latest Noise, Vibration and Sound Technology I (OS)
  • May 22Room G301+G3029:30-11:10
  • Chair: Kei Ichikawa (Honda Motor)
Noise & Vibration Committee, Sound Quality Evaluation Engineering Committee
Masashi Komada (Toyota Motor), Takashi Kondo (Honda R&D), Masayuki Ishizuka (Siemens), Takeshi Toi (Chuo University)
No. Title・Author (Affiliation)

Development of Input Method for Driving Road Surface Excitation Force in Road Noise CAE

Satoshi Hoshika・Takuya Aogaki・Shigemitsu Takahashi・Shusaku Iba・Hisayoshi Matsuoka (Nissan Motor)・Tatsuya Suma・Hiromichi Ebisawa (Estech)

Full vehicle analysis uses road surface data to set the excitation force to the tires in detail, which requires a lot of calculation time and makes it difficult to analyze the mechanism of the analysis results. We report that high-speed and highly accurate full vehicle analysis and factor analysis are possible by extracting the 10-degree-of-freedom excitation force that greatly contributes to road noise using principal component analysis.


Prediction of Vehicle Traveling Noise by Tire Noise Source Modeling

Hiroshi Fujii (The Yokohama Rubber)・Noriki Iwanaga (Research Center of Computational Mechanics)

In order to meet the demand for tire noise reduction accompanied with strengthen pass-by noise regulations, it is important to understand the mechanism of pass-by noise itself.
We modeled tire noise sources as monopole and dipole sound sources, estimated their strengths and positions based on the observed pressure information around several specified tires. By moving the sources, we predicted the time and frequency characteristics of sound pressure at a pass-by noise measuring point. This paper reports the comparison of the predicted characteristics with the measured ones on pass-by noise test settings.


Vibration Propagation from Main Body Structural Members to Floor Panels
-Basics for Better Road Noise-

Masao Ishihama (Ishihamagiken Consulting)

A theoretical analysis was conducted on the process of vibration transmission through a car body load carrying members to its floor panels to improve structure-borne road noise. As a result, such knowledges were obtained. 1) dispersion of vibration propagation on a door sill determines the bending vibration propagation pattern on a floor panel. 2) center of rotation of a door sill affects the floor panel bending vibration modes. These knowledges will enable us to design better floor design for low road noise.


Development of Dual Compound Insulator Improving Vehicle R&H Trade off Performance

Seung Jae Oh・Jin Hee Lee (Hyundai Motor)

R&H and NVH are trade-off and vehicles that are suitable for target performance can be developed when they are allocated appropriately considering various design requirements. In this paper, we identified the impact of front insulator on the vehicle performance and made optimum design for target performance. To achieve goal, we developed dual compound type insulator.

  • Session No.2 The Latest Noise, Vibration and Sound Technology II (OS)
  • May 22Room G301+G30212:10-13:25
  • Chair: Hisayoshi Matsuoka (Nissan Motor)
Noise & Vibration Committee, Sound Quality Evaluation Engineering Committee
Masashi Komada (Toyota Motor), Takashi Kondo (Honda R&D), Masayuki Ishizuka (Siemens), Takeshi Toi (Chuo University)
No. Title・Author (Affiliation)

Feature Extraction of Engine Sound with Time Variability by Machine Learning

Yota Oshima・Soichiro Tanabe・Takeshi Toi (Chuo University)

The time-frequency analysis images are classified based on a machine learning model that combines a Convolutional Neural Network and a Quasi-Recurrent Neural Network, and features in each frequency component of engine sound with time variability are visualized by using Gradient-weighted Class Activation Mapping, which is a middle layer extraction method of a neural network.


A Study on Machine Learning and Preprocessing of Parts Operating Sound Data to Establish Quantitative Standards Evaluation for Automotive Parts Noise

Sang Heon Wang・Nak Kyoung Kong・Dong Eun Cha・Ho Wan Jang (Hyundai Motor)

As the electrification of automobiles and the mobility revolution, the noise of the interior space is becoming important. Due to these factors, the standards for operating sound of parts are also becoming stricter. But in most cases, the standards depend on emotional evaluations that human hear and judge. In this paper, we propose a method to establish quantitative standard evaluations for emotional evaluations as a process for performing machine learning after pre-processing frequency analysis of operating sound. Using this method, it is possible to establish quantitative standard evaluations for the operation sound of parts without human intervention.


Prediction of High Frequency Noises of an EV using Machine Learning
-Machine Learning for the Prediction of Both Structure-Borne and Airborne Noises-

Ji Woo Yoo・Yong Dae Kim (Hyundai Motor)・Kwangsoo Yoon・Chanhee Jeong・Hyosik Jung・Dohyeon Oh (Hexagon Korea)

Whine noise of an electric vehicle occurs due to electro-magnetic force or gears in an e-motor, which lies usually at higher frequencies. This paper deals with a proof of concept for machine learning methods predicting the whine and shows the relevant procedure of machine learning. The study investigates two topics: efficient encapsulation on the e-motor to handle acoustic radiation (airborne), and prediction of whine noise in the cabin (structure-borne). Particularly a novel superposition method is proposed to quickly realize various combination of encapsulation. It is shown that machine learning could be a good alternative to predict high frequency whine but also reveals weak points.

  • Session No.3 The Latest Noise, Vibration and Sound Technology III (OS)
  • May 22Room G301+G30214:05-16:10
  • Chair: Hidenori Morita (Toyota Motor)
Noise & Vibration Committee, Sound Quality Evaluation Engineering Committee
Masashi Komada (Toyota Motor), Takashi Kondo (Honda R&D), Masayuki Ishizuka (Siemens), Takeshi Toi (Chuo University)
No. Title・Author (Affiliation)

Vibration Measurement with Images of Automobile Engine and Body using Compressed Sensing and Order Analysis

Yuki Kato (Kochi University of Technology)・Soma Watahiki (Kozo Keikaku Engineering)・Masayoshi Otaka (Ono Sokki)

Measurement of automobile engine and body vibration has been widely conducted for the purpose of vibration control design. In this study, a low-cost/high-resolution visualization measurement method for high-speed vibration was developed by applying "compressive sensing", "digital image correlation" and "order analysis" to images captured by a high-resolution low-speed camera using a random strobe flash.


Development of Low Vibration Crankshaft in Outboard Motor Equipped with New V8 Type Engine

Kentaro Takanishi (Honda Motor)・Tatsuya Kuroda・Takashi Kondo (Honda R&D)・Gaku Naoe (Honda Motor)

Developed the flagship model BF350, a large outboard motor equipped with a whole new V8 engine. Under the width restriction of outboard motors, it is common to adopt a bank angle of 60 degrees. However, the vibration caused by primary inertial couple force has been remained as a problem to be solved. In this paper, we have developed the crankshaft that does not generate primary inertial couple force by optimizing the crank pin arrangement without additional parts such as dynamic balancer, and low vibration performance has been achieved.


Characteristic Analysis of Power Plant Eigenmodes Deteriorating the Sound Quality of Engine Combustion Noise

Keizo Konishi (Honda R&D)・Kenji Torii・Chihiro Nishikawa (Honda Motor)

The authors have previously established a method for obtaining an intermediate index of structural transfer characteristics from vibration experiments on power plants to enhance the sound quality of combustion noise. This paper reports on the analysis of the characteristics of power plant vibration modes that affect the increase of half-order and odd-order components of combustion noise, using the above index and experimental modal analysis on a four-cylinder engine.


A Method for Calculating Power Plant Transfer Functions for Enhancing Engine Sound Quality

Chihiro Nishikawa・Kenji Torii (Honda Motor)・Keizo Konishi (Honda R&D)・Hideto Tamaki (AutoTechnic Japan)・Ryo Yamaguchi (Honda Motor)

The authors developed order-based frequency response functions (FRFs) as an intermediate index of transfer characteristics obtained from operational data to enhance sound quality of combustion noise, and established a method to obtain a similar index from a stationary power plant. This paper reports on the development of order-based FRFs calculation method using the finite element model of a power plant based on experimental results.


Guidelines for Structural Design to Realize Power Plant Eigenmodes that Enhance Engine Sound Quality

Kenji Torii (Honda Motor)・Keizo Konishi (Honda R&D)・Chihiro Nishikawa (Honda Motor)・Hideto Tamaki (Auto Technic Japan)・Yuichi Matsumura (Gifu University)・Takuya Yoshimura (Tokyo Metropolitan University)

The authors are studying basic power plant structural design guidelines to enhance engine sound quality effectively. In an in-line 4-cylinder engine, it is important not to increase the half-order and odd-order components of engine vibrations at the resonant frequency of power plant. In this presentation, control conditions of vibration mode vectors for this purpose will be presented.

  • Session No.4 Vehicle Dynamics and Control I (OS)
  • May 22Room G3039:30-11:10
  • Chair: Yoshikazu Hattori (Toyota Central Reseach and Develpment laboratories)
This OS is designed to discuss the vehicle dynamics technology from theoretical to practical point of view. The various topics regarding vehicle dynamics will be well-received. (e.g. theoretical study/new aspect of vehicle dynamics, a proposal for dynamics control/modification to improve the vehicle dynamics performance, analysis technology/measurement setup to support this improvement, development of body, chassis components/system.) It is expected that the members who join in this session will get a deep knowledge of vehicle dynamics technology and discuss the various topics from current issue to the next activities.
Vehicle Dynamics Committee
Yoshikazu Hattori (Toyota Central R&D Labs.), Pongsathorn Raksincharoensak (Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology), Junya Takahashi (Hitachi), Etsuo Katsuyama (Toyota Motor), Ryusuke Hirao (Hitachi Astemo)
No. Title・Author (Affiliation)

Theoretical Considerations on Restoration and Damping in Yaw Resonance
-The Essence of Resonance and Damping Described by Two Degrees of Freedom of the Angle of Lateral Sliding of the Two Positions-

Hideki Sakai (Kindai University)

Yaw resonance is caused by the rear percussion center’s stabilizing toward its equilibrium position. In relation to the equations of this motion, this report points out Newton's second law at the percussion centers, a feel-back vehicle model using the position variable, the fact that the position is represented by the yaw lead time constant, the fact that yaw angle is defined at the position, an interpretation of the fast response formula at the position, a physical model of the yaw lead time constant, the yaw stabilizing mechanism and the physical meaning represented by the yaw eigenvalue formula and proposes an identification method of the yaw eigenvalues.


Dynamic Roll Center Height and Design

Kouta Tanizaki・Hideki Sakai (Kindai University)

The lower the center of roll, the more ground contact is felt. Therefore, the position of the minimum lateral acceleration of the vehicle body is defined as the dynamic roll center. It is located at the roll axis at zero vehicle speed and approaches the center of gravity at higher speeds. The cause of this is considered as a constraint by the yaw resonance frequency. This constraint was verified by the variation of the real part of the roll root with vehicle speed. The effect of roll damping on this position is also discussed.


Effects of Changes in Specifications Associated with Vehicle Electrification on Steering Characteristic Evaluation

Motoharu Hattori・Masato Abe・Yoshio Kano・Masaki Yamamoto・Makoto Yamakado (Kanagawa Institute of Technology)

Vehicle electrification induces changes in specifications, including a lower center of gravity, reduced pitch and yaw inertia moments, and a rearward shift in the center of gravity. This paper investigates the impact of differences in specifications between internal combustion engine vehicles and electric vehicles on dynamic characteristics. Results from comprehensive vehicle simulations and driving simulator experiments assessing steering performance are presented, providing insights for the improvement of electric vehicle design and driving dynamics.


A Study on Vehicle Cornering Characteristics using Model Considering Differential Mechanism in Rear Wheel

Ikkei Kobayashi・Yusuke Ebashi・Hayato Yamada・Jumpei Kuroda・Daigo Uchino (Tokai University)・Kazuki Ogawa (Aichi University of Technology)・Keigo Ikeda (Hokkaido University of Science)・Mohamad Heerwan Peeie (University Malaysia Pahang)・Hideaki Kato・Takayoshi Narita (Tokai University)

There are three typical differentials that connect the left and right wheels: open differential, locked, and limited slip differential, which affect stability and control when cornering. However, the differentials are generally ignored in vehicle dynamics industry, making it difficult to understand their dynamic behavior. In this report, the effects of the three differentials on cornering dynamics in a quasi-steady-state representation are formulated, including load transfer, to elucidate the dynamics.

  • Session No.5 Vehicle Dynamics and Control II (OS)
  • May 22Room G30312:10-13:25
  • Chair: Junya Takahashi (Hitachi)
This OS is designed to discuss the vehicle dynamics technology from theoretical to practical point of view. The various topics regarding vehicle dynamics will be well-received. (e.g. theoretical study/new aspect of vehicle dynamics, a proposal for dynamics control/modification to improve the vehicle dynamics performance, analysis technology/measurement setup to support this improvement, development of body, chassis components/system.) It is expected that the members who join in this session will get a deep knowledge of vehicle dynamics technology and discuss the various topics from current issue to the next activities.
Vehicle Dynamics Committee
Yoshikazu Hattori (Toyota Central R&D Labs.), Pongsathorn Raksincharoensak (Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology), Junya Takahashi (Hitachi), Etsuo Katsuyama (Toyota Motor), Ryusuke Hirao (Hitachi Astemo)
No. Title・Author (Affiliation)

Suspension Characteristics Model for Vehicle Dynamics Design

Motoshi Ohki (Toyota Motor)

In the design of the vehicle dynamics performance, the suspension characteristics are important design elements. In the suspension characteristics, there are the spring characteristics to have the nonlinearities such as bump rubber, the kinematic characteristics such as kingpin axes, the compliance characteristics by the deformation of the elastic material. These characteristics are described by the function using the parameter with meaning dynamically, the suspension characteristics model to design the vehicle dynamics using MBD is developed.


Consideration on Effect of Transient Load Transfer Characteristics of Race Car on Dynamic Performance

Yusuke Ebashi・Ikkei Kobayashi・Hayato Yamada・Jumpei Kuroda・Daigo Uchino (Tokai University)・Kazuki Ogawa (Aichi University of Technology)・Keigo Ikeda (Hokkaido University of Science)・Mohamad Peeie Heerwan (University Malaysia Pahang)・Hideaki Kato・Takayoshi Narita (Tokai University)

It is well known that load transfer is an important factor in race car that boast high dynamic performance, and that the distribution of steady-state load transfer and other factors can be controlled by suspension settings. However, the influence of transient load transfer and motion is not well understood. In this study, a 14-DOF vehicle model is used to clarify the relationship between transient load transfer characteristics and dynamic behavior.


Ride Comfort Development using Target Cascading Method based on System Level Testing of Body and Suspension

Seungmin Kwon・Bumsuk Kim・Seonghun Kim・Yongsub Yi・Jongho Ko (Hyundai Motor)

Predicting the future demands of vehicle industry is difficult, but one of the most important performance is driving comfort. So driving comfort must be a critical factor for future customers. Driving comfort is determined by a combination of subsystems such as tires, suspension, body, and powertrain. Target Cascading was applied to analyze the effect of subsystems on driving comfort. So how to correlate among vehicle, system, and component was developed in this research. By utilizing the results of suspension system testing, a simulation model based on system level was developed, and it derived the component improvement to reach the target.

  • Session No.6 Vehicle Dynamics and Control III (OS)
  • May 22Room G30314:05-16:10
  • Chair: Pongsathorn Raksincharoensak (Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology)
This OS is designed to discuss the vehicle dynamics technology from theoretical to practical point of view. The various topics regarding vehicle dynamics will be well-received. (e.g. theoretical study/new aspect of vehicle dynamics, a proposal for dynamics control/modification to improve the vehicle dynamics performance, analysis technology/measurement setup to support this improvement, development of body, chassis components/system.) It is expected that the members who join in this session will get a deep knowledge of vehicle dynamics technology and discuss the various topics from current issue to the next activities.
Vehicle Dynamics Committee
Yoshikazu Hattori (Toyota Central R&D Labs.), Pongsathorn Raksincharoensak (Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology), Junya Takahashi (Hitachi), Etsuo Katsuyama (Toyota Motor), Ryusuke Hirao (Hitachi Astemo)
No. Title・Author (Affiliation)

Development of Vehicle Motion Control Method using Driving Force of In-Wheel Motors

Masaru Yamasaki・Toshiyuki Ajima・Wataru Hatsuse (Hitachi)

In order to control the 3 DoF motion of a vehicle to improve the vehicle characteristics, developed posture and motion control method using the jack-up force generated by the drive reaction force of in-wheel motors. In this presentation, report the torque control method based on jerk in both longtudinal and lateral directions is developed, and the effectiveness of the method is verified on a test vehicle.


Front/Rear Driving Force Distribution Control Based on Tire Workload Considering Vehicle Behavior in the Turning Limit

Kohei Sakaguchi・Takuma Takeuchi・Etsuo Katsuyama (Toyota Motor)

In the turning limit, front-wheel-drive vehicles tend to have strong understeer characteristics, and rear-wheel-drive vehicles have weaker understeer characteristics, resulting in consistent vehicle behavior. On the other hand, four-wheel-drive vehicles have a small difference in front and rear tire workload, and its steering characteristics are inconsistent. In this paper, we proposed a design method for front/rear driving force distribution based on tire workload in order to control vehicle behavior in the turning limit.


Cornering Stability Enhancement Utilizing Restoring Yaw Moment Generated by LSD's Driving Torque Distribution

Koki Yamamoto・Naoki Hiraga・Koji Takahashi・Daisuke Umetsu (Mazda)・Makoto Yamakado・Masato Abe (Kanagawa Institute of Technology)・Isao Hirota (GKN Driveline Japan)

LSD is a well-known system, and the vehicle cornering motion can be stabilized by its yaw restoring moment effect. We focused on this mechanism and applied a newly developed mechanical LSD unit for a rear-wheel drive vehicle. The unique point of this LSD is that the torque distribution characteristics can be set independently between the driving and braking directions. In this paper, we introduce the implementation result of this LSD and its effect on vehicle handling performance enhancement during cornering with acceleration or deceleration.


Optimal Trajectory Generation of Competition Vehicles using Intra-Convex Domain Constraint

Masanori Harada・Yoshihide Arai・Takashi Sago・Yuki Ueyama (National Defense Academy of Japan)

This study investigates the optimal trajectory of competition vehicles as an optimal control problem and generates it through optimization computations. For a course layout with a mixture of straight and curved shapes, we apply an intra-convex domain constraint method to drive the vehicle within the given course. Numerical results show that the proposed method can easily generate the same optimal trajectory as in previous studies.


Study on Vehicle Stability Control for Towing Vehicles using Trailer Parameter Estimation

Kota Kaga (J-QuAD DYNAMICS)・Terutaka Tamaizumi (JTEKT)・Atsuto Hirota (Advics)・Nobuhiro Nitta (J-QuAD DYNAMICS)

Towing vehicles exhibiting unstable behavior are the subject of study on stability control. However, in actual driving, there is still a challenge in maintaining control performance due to fluctuations in trailer parameters such as changing trailer load.
In this study, we analyze the behavior of the towing vehicles with models to evaluate the impact of parameter variations. Using by these results, we propose a method to estimate the key parameters of the trailer and develop a more robust vehicle stability control than ever before.

  • Session No.7 Thermal and Fluid Engineering for Carbon Neutral Society -Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)- (OS)
  • May 22Room G3049:30-12:10
  • Chair: Takuji Nakashima (Hiroshima University)
For the realization of well-to-wheel carbon neutrality, the latest research and development of thermal and fluid technologies that support the realization of extra-low-carbon mobility will be presented and discussed to promote global exchange of engineers and to improve mutual technological capabilities.
CFD (Computational Fuid Dynamics) Committee, Vehicle Interior Environment Technical Committee, Vehicle Aerodynamics Committee, Thermal Management Engineering Committee
Kota Fukuda (Tokai University), Kazuhisa Katchi (VALEO Japan), Tomohiro Tasaka (EXEDY), Hiroshi Tanaka (Toyota Systems)
No. Title・Author (Affiliation)

Development of CFD Method to Predict Drag Differences Due to Tire Profiles by Reproducing Rotational Deformation

Shusei Tanaka・Sae Takahashi・Jun Ikeda・Kosuke Nakasato (Nissan Motor)

Vehicle aerodynamic drag changes by tire profiles. The profile is deformed by the vehicle load and rotational centrifugal force, therefore both effects should be taken into consideration to predict aerodynamic performance with high accuracy. However, there are few studies that consider rotational deformation due to the difficulty of reproducing the shape. In this study, we developed a CFD method to predict aerodynamic drag differences due to tire profiles by reproducing rotational deformation of tire based on measurements of the profiles in rotating with load condition.


Mechanism of Low Reynolds Number Oscillatory Flow Past Ahmed body

Yusuke Atsumi・Suguru Shiratori・Itsuhei Kohri・Hideaki Nagano・Kenjiro Shimano (Tokyo City University)

This study addresses the mechanism of low Reynolds number oscillatory flows past Ahmed body for the case of the slant angles 29 and 31 degrees. We report the structure of energy supply from a time-averaged field to a deviated oscillatory field, and their analogy to the well-known centrifugal instability.


Development of Analyzing Method of Condensation Water Splashing on Electric Parts in a Vehicle by using MPS Method

Yasuhiro Ohshima・Hisao Nishimori・Yusuke Imai・Hiroshi Kamatani (Toyota Motor)

We have confirmed whether there are problems of condensation water splashing on electric parts installed a vehicle through design reviews and by spraying water to concerned area. However, it is difficult to clarify the water splashing route and it is needed to spend a lot of hours to identify the route. We developed the analyzing method of condensation water splashing on electric parts in a vehicle and made the water splashing route easier by considering simulation setting conditions and parameters on MPV method.


Feasibility Study of Automated Design Method for Air Conditioning Ducts (First Report)
-Shape Optimization under Multi-Objective Function and Multi-Design Variable Conditions-

Hiroshi Tanaka・Hiromune Kanamori・Hiroyuki Umetani (Toyota Systems)・Kenichi Ichinose (Toyota Motor)

For automatic design, it is necessary to have a technology to derive shapes under the constraints of multiple design variables and multiobjective functions. In this paper, we report on the development of an evolutionary optimization calculation workflow for an air-conditioning duct that automatically performs a loop of shape change, fluid calculation, and property extraction to derive the optimal shape, and on the finding that a Pareto solution can be extracted even under the conditions of a very large number of design variables and multi-objective functions.


Feasibility Study of Automated Design Method for Air Conditioning Ducts (Second Report)
-Reduction Study of Computational Load by using AI Methods-

Hiromune Kanamori・Hiroyuki Umetani・Hiroshi Tanaka (Toyota Systems)

In the first report, it was found that the evolutionary optimization calculation method under multi-design variables and multi-objective function constraints requires a large amount of computer resources to reach the optimal shape. In this paper, we report on our investigation how to reduce computational resources by using AI methods, and report that we were able to obtain an optimal shape with approximately the same performance using only one-tenth of the computational resources of evolutionary methods.


Implementation of an Aerodynamic Reduced Order Model (ROM) based on Geometric Deep Learning (GDL) for Quick Design Review

Bhanu Prakash Samala・Jiri Hajek・Paul Marston・Rahul Varadhan・Enric Aramburu (IDIADA Automotive Technology)

The authors will present their experience in implementing different ML technologies, such as CNN or GNN to obtain aerodynamic forces in short timescales. This paper will focus on GNNs, which is currently the most promising approach to learn how to simulate fluid dynamics in geometrically complex domains. Simulation grids are actually graphs, so grid results can be directly translated into GNNs and vice versa, providing high efficiency and versatility compared to other predictive ML methods. The authors will also present an industrial application of GNN for drag and flow field prediction, ultimately allowing interactive analysis of new vehicle designs.

  • Session No.8 Thermal and Fluid Engineering for Carbon Neutral Society -Fluid Dynamics- (OS)
  • May 22Room G30413:10-15:50
  • Chair: Kota Fukuda (Tokai University)
For the realization of well-to-wheel carbon neutrality, the latest research and development of thermal and fluid technologies that support the realization of extra-low-carbon mobility will be presented and discussed to promote global exchange of engineers and to improve mutual technological capabilities.
Vehicle Aerodynamics Committee
Daisuke Azuma (Kurume Institute of Technology), Atsushi Miura (Suzuki Motors), Akiyoshi Iida (Toyohashi University of Technology), Hiroyuki Abe (Isuzu Motors), Daisuke Nakamura (Honda Motor)
No. Title・Author (Affiliation)

A Study on A-PLR Side Flow Noise Reduction According to Windshield Side Molding

Nak Kyung Kong・Kyunghwan Kim・Heung Gi Kim・Byung Woo Lee (Hyundai Motor)

The flow that flows around the vehicle while driving can be divided into a Center Flow that flows through the center of the vehicle and a Side Flow that flows toward the A-PLR. The side flow accelerates past the A-PLR during vehicle driving and is divided into a main branch flow that flows through the bottom of the door glass and a vortex flow that flows toward the top of the door glass. Through the flow guide structure of A-PLR molding and the shape change of the molding, the change of the flow flowing around the door glass was investigated. As a result, as the R value of the side molding decreased, the flow speed of the wind flowing through the A-PLR was accelerated, and it was confirmed that the vortex of the top of the door glass was weakened.


Investigation on the Multidisciplinary Design for Simultaneous Reduction of Wind Noise and Squeak of the Door Inner Belt Weatherstrip in Electric Vehicles

Sang Hyun Lee (Hyundai Motor/Sungkyunkwan University)・Seunghyun Cho (Sungkyunkwan University/Samsung Electronics)・Bumyong Yoon (Samsung Electronics)・Sanghyun Lee・Kyoung Min Hong (Hwaseung Material)・Jonghwan Suhr (Sungkyunkwan University)

NVH are becoming crucial performances in EVs, particularly wind noise. A high initial contact load of the door inner belt weatherstrip should be applied to prevent the wind noise from entering the interior of the vehicle. This in turn may cause a squeaking noise at the glass/weatherstrip interface. Thus, this study demonstrates a multidisciplinary design of the weatherstrip to simultaneously reduce wind noise and squeak by designing TPE material properties and structural geometry of the weatherstrip. By adjusting the TPE material recipe, flock coating compression set, damping, friction properties were improved, Vehicle level evaluated to confirm that the performance was verified


Effect of Turbulence Intensity on the Aerodynamic Performance of Test Specimens in Wind Tunnel Testing

Ken Terakawa・Satoshi Inazumi (Japan Wind Tunnel Testing)

Wind Tunnels used in automotive aerodynamic testing typically have different design geometries and various levels of uniformity and turbulence intensity. Typically, these differences are accounted for by applying correction factors. In this presentation, the effect of turbulence intensity is evaluated using Ahmed body and NACA aerofoil specimens measured using the same wind tunnel and wind speeds.


PHEV Thermal Management System of Fast Charging Time Reduction
-Utilizing Engine Coolant Heat Loss and Cabin High Voltage Heater for Battery Heating System-

Takayuki Shimauchi・Hidekazu Hirabayashi (Toyota Motor)

TMC is developing PHEV for EV distance improvement and fast charging time reduction. We think about adoption of fast charging to improve EV distance. The problem of fast charging is long time in winter. The key of development is to reduce fast charging time. In this paper, we propose the world’s first battery heating system. It is a new battery heating system using Engine coolant loss and Cabin high voltage heater to reduce fast charging time.


Development of Aerodynamics Noise Prediction System using Generative AI for Vehicle Body Shape Flow

Yuta Ito・Kohei Shintani・Yohei Morikuni・Tomotaka Sugai・Shiro Yasuoka (Toyota Motor)

Aerodynamic noise is the mechanism by which pressure fluctuations caused by turbulent flow generate sound waves that penetrate and propagate into the vehicle cabin. Among them, for aerodynamic noise originating from the vehicle body shape (exterior noise), a predictive method using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has been established. While the introduction of CFD has shortened the development time for exterior noise in automotive development, it still requires considerable computational time whenever changes are made to the exterior shape. Therefore, as a new method to solve this issue, we report a case where an AI model was created using CFD results as training data, and a method to predict exterior noise without conducting CFD was established, significantly reducing the output time.


Effect of Bulk Viscosity Coefficient on Vehicle Aerodynamic Noise Analysis by using LBM

Akiyoshi Iida (Toyohashi University of Technology)・Yoshinobu Yamade (Mizuho Research & Technologies)・Masashi Miyazawa (Honda R&D)・Tsukasa Yoshinaga (Osaka University)・Chisachi Kato (The University of Tokyo)

The bulk viscosity used in LBM analysis is larger than that of actual value, and the aerodynamic sound attenuation rate obtained by LBM analysis is larger than the solution of the NS equation. The problems of aerodynamic sound analysis for automobiles are discussed.

  • Session No.10 Fuel Cell Vehicle -Fuel Cell Stacks, Systems and Components- (OS)
  • May 22Room G316+G3179:30-12:10
  • Chair: Kotaro Ikeda (Toyota Motor)
This session will be held for engineers to share the latest progress of advanced technologies and stacks, systems and components in fuel cell Vehicles, in order to discuss the articles internationally.
Fuel Cell Technology Committee
Makoto Uchida (Yamanashi University), Kenichiro Ueda (Honda R&D), Kotaro Ikeda (Toyota Motor), Kiyoshi Yamaura (Mitsubishi Motors)
No. Title・Author (Affiliation)

Development of Fuel Cell System for New Fuel Cell Vehicle

Hiroyasu Ozaki・Asao Uenodai・Kaoru Yamazaki・Shuto Maniwa・Takayuki Ogawa (Honda R&D)

A new fuel cell system with more than twice the durability and 1/9 the cold start time of the previous model has been developed and installed in the new FCV. In addition to the evolution of the fuel cell itself, durability was improved by controlling the amount of humidification. Humidity control during system shutdown and rapid warm-up control during start-up have reduced start-up time in low-temperature environments. This technology is applicable to applications other than automobiles.


Development of New Structural Fuel Cell Stack

Choichi Ishikawa・Manabu Iwaida・Hideharu Naito・Shigeru Inai・Hiromichi Yoshida (Honda R&D)・Nobuyoshi Muromoto (Honda Motor)

Developed a new structural fuel cell stack for the fuel cell system installed in new FCV.
Adopts new stack structure technologies such as reducing the number of fuel cell stack structural parts, adopting a metal beed seal for the separator seal, and reducing the amount of platinum in the catalyst.
Achieved cost reduction and more than double the durability compared to the previous model.


A Study on the Effect of Multivariable Control for Performance Improvement of a Fuel Cell Hybrid Test Train

Takashi Yoneyama (Railway Technical Research Institute)・Shun Yoshioka・Yida Bao・Minhao Wen・Wei-Hsiang Yang・Yushi Kamiya (Waseda University)・Takayuki Kashiwagi・Kenichi Ogawa・Manato Kaneko・Manato Kanzaki (Railway Technical Research Institute)

The fuel cell hybrid test train requires methods to control fuel cell output power. The acceleration and regenerative-brake performance of the train varies with the SOC of the battery. And, the energy consumption also varies with the passenger occupancy and the ambient temperature. Therefore, we studied the traction performance and fuel consumption depending on the difference of the control methods and the number of parameters to be considered with using a driving energy simulator.


Characteristics of Fuel Cell Models Used in Model-Based Development and its Application to Simulation (Second Report)

Kazuhiko Kurokawa・Tomoaki Takagi (MCOR)・Tinh Nhan Nguyen (Sync Partners)・Kensuke Tsukahara・Yuji Yajima (MCOR)

In the current development of fuel cell vehicles based on the MBD process, concurrent development of mechanical design and control design using 1D-CAE tends to be important. To achieve the development, it is desirable to utilize appropriate plant models depending on the objectives in the development process. This paper focuses on the plant models of the fuel cell applied to each process and introduces the characteristics included in the examples.


A Study on the Risk Reduction Technology of Self-Ignition of High-Pressure Hydrogen Gas for Improving Fire Safety on the FCEV

Dong Sun Lee・Jeong Hyun Ham・Hae Pin Choi (Hyundai Motor)

Hydrogen is a promising energy carrier in a view of the environmental protection and the exhaustion of fossil fuel resources among the alternative energies. However, the technology that can safely use hydrogen has to be a priority before utilizing hydrogen system. In this study, the self-ignition phenomenon is investigated especially focusing on the TPRD of FCEV system under high pressure hydrogen gas, and the mechanism for the formation of self-ignition condition was verified associated with experiment of hydrogen storage system on the commercial vehicle. As a result of experiment, it is possible that the self-ignition phenomenon is induced on hydrogen storage system with emission pipe and glass bulb by shock wave and mixing zone, even though the system has no ignition source. The fusible metal TPRD can be helpful to prevent self-ignition phenomenon.


Development of Tank Inspection Technique for Monitoring Accumulated Damage of Hydrogen Tank

Kyungh-whan Kim・Jung-ryul Lee (KAIST)・Yong-joo Cho (Hyundai Motor)

As the number of FCEV vehicles increases, hydrogen tanks are exposed to deterioration in use, and collision accidents, etc. To ensure the safe use of hydrogen tank, it is necessary to monitor the condition of the hydrogen tank to check its safety. In this study, we propose a method to measure the crack density of hydrogen tanks in real-time during operation by comparing the crack density, and the attenuation ratio of ultrasonic signal propagation. It is caused by repeated use of hydrogen tanks. Using a PZT Active Sensing network can monitor the structural status of hydrogen tank.

  • Session No.11 New Development of The Energy Storage System Technology I (OS)
  • May 22Room G316+G31713:10-15:50
  • Chair: Daichi Imamura (JARI)
Energy Storage System Technologies Committee
Daichi Imamura (Japan Automobile Research Institute), Manabu Watanabe (Nissan Motor), Kazuhito Kishi (Ricoh), Mitsuo Nakamura (Forsee Power Japan), Noriko Yoshizawa (AIST)
No. Title・Author (Affiliation)

Recovery and Lifespan Extension of Lead Acid Battery by Carbon Nanotubes (First Report)
-Stable Dispersing of Carbon Nanotubes in Liquids-

Takashi Kimura (Kijiku Consulting)・Kuniyasu Sasaki (Desion)・Takeshi Kawagoshi (Core Business)

The technology of stably dispersing carbon nanotubes into a liquid has been applied to lead-acidbatteries. It is reported that the reduction reaction of lead sulfate crystals has been promoted, leading tothe extension and recovery of the lifespan of deteriorated lead-acid batteries. This technology hasalready been introduced to the market, and the extension and recovery eff ects on commonly availablelead acid batteries have been confi rmed. Therefore, it is also reported on the performance data based onaccumulated results.


Systematic Experimental Study and Model Construction of Reversible Degradation of Lithium-Ion Batteries

Takashi Yamamoto・Hiroki Fujita (Mazda)

LIB reaction unevenness can be easily predicted by using pressure distribution as a proxy.


In-Service State of Health Estimator for On-Board Battery Storage Systems (Part 3)

Kohei Maruchi・Takahiro Yamamoto・Hisaaki Hatano・Atsushi Inamura (Toshiba)

We proposed SoH estimation method for on-board lithium-ion batteries using operation data such as voltage, current, and temperature. This method estimates battery capacity by referring statistically to operation data from deteriorated battery cells and does not require special measurement or equipment.
In this presentation, we show that the method works even for data that gradually reduce the charging rate.


Pre-Feasibility Study on Detecting Increased Risk of Thermal Runaway for Batteries using the Charging Curve Analysis as a Non-Destructive Diagnostic Method

Kenichiroh Koshika (NTSEL)・Hideki Tsuruga (JET)・Tomokazu Morita (Toshiba)・Keizoh Honda (JET)

A pre-feasibility study was conducted to detect increased risk of thermal runaway for single cell by the Charging curve analysis. Cycled cells with lithium plating were prepared as samples with increased risk of thermal runaway. The increased risk of thermal runaway was evaluated experimentally with thermal runaway tests using laser irradiation. The Charging curve analysis is one of the non-destructive diagnostic methods based on electrochemistry. The Charging curve analysis detected the lithium plating in the cycled cells, demonstrating its potential as a non-destructive diagnostic method for increased risk of thermal runaway.


Verification of Non-Destructive Diagnosis of Battery Internal State using charging Curve Analysis for SOH/SOS Estimation of EV Batteries

Tomokazu Morita (Toshiba)・Hideki Tsuruga・Keizoh Honda (JET)・Kenichiroh Koshika (NTSEL)

We verified battery capacity estimation and lithium precipitation detection using charging curve analysis for application to SOH/SOS diagnosis of EV batteries. In this presentation, as a detailed principle verification of non-destructive diagnosis, we compared and contrasted the results of cycle deterioration tests for single cells, the results of decomposition analysis of cells after deterioration, and the internal state estimation based on charging curve analysis, and considered the validity of the estimation.


Consideration of Charging Stations using Natural Energy
-Effective Use of LMO-

Masato Shirakata (Shirakataconsultants)・Shinnichi Saitou (Fine Eco Solution)・Yusuke Kume (KMTec)・Shinji Maezono (Mobility Energy Circulation)

For the spread of electric vehicles, it is essential to expand the number of car charging stations.
Charging stations are required to be powered by natural energy.
We propose a charging station that combines solar power generation, wind power generation, and hydroelectric power generation using lithium manganate ion batteries.

  • Session No.12 New Development of The Energy Storage System Technology II
  • May 22Room G316+G31716:30-17:45
  • Chair: Manabu Watanabe (Nissan Motor)
No. Title・Author (Affiliation)

AI-Based Digital Twin - Anomaly Detection and Diagnostics for HV Battery Behavior and Performance

Thomas Alexander Kristan (AVL List/Graz University of Technology)・Milan Živadinović・Christian Rupert Rehrl (AVL List)・Roman Kern (Graz University of Technology)・Alwin Tuschkan (AVL List)

In the rapidly evolving automotive industry, HV batteries play a pivotal role, demanding a focused effort on safety and failure prevention. Conventional methods for health monitoring fall short due to their supervised nature, relying on historical fault data. This paper proposes an innovative approach involving the implementation of an AI-based digital twin leveraging a graph neural network for unsupervised anomaly detection in fleet data. Furthermore, our approach incorporates domain knowledge to proactively prevent HV battery failure. The results demonstrate state-of-the-art performance for enhancing the reliability and safety of EV power systems.


Charge Planning Tool for Heavy-Duty Electric Vehicle Fleets

Alenka Beckers・Róbinson Medina・Steven Wilkins (TNO/Powertrains)

Driven by zero-emission targets, fleet owners in the Heavy-Duty transport sector are transitioning towards Electric Vehicles (EVs). However, existing Fleet Management Software (FMS), designed for conventional vehicles, needs to incorporate the planning of charging moments of EVs. We propose a Charge Planning Tool (CPT) that can be integrated with existing FMS. The CPT optimizes a charging schedule for a non-homogeneous EV fleet with multiple charging opportunities, less chargers than vehicles, while considering compatibility between chargers and vehicles, and grid related constraints. Additionally, the charging schedule minimizes battery degradation, peak power demand, and electricity costs of the entire fleet.


Next Generation Battery Packs Ready for the Battery Passport

Erik Hoedemaekers・Sjoerd Rongen・Steven Wilkins (TNO)

This paper presents a novel methodology for a model-based battery prototype design process, incorporating design innovations and Battery Passport requirements derived from the new EU Battery Regulation. The design process includes the use of a modular simulation tool to justify choices by means of simulation analysis. A case study is presented, linking the design of a battery pack with the implementation of a battery passport and the therefore required BMS algorithms. A battery passport implementation based on International Data Spaces will be presented and discussed in this paper, and results from a demonstration are included.

  • Session No.13 Electric Road System I (Dynamic Charge System, Dynamic Power Supply System) (OS)
  • May 22Room G318+G3199:30-11:10
  • Chair: Takamitsu Tajima (Honda R&D)
Proliferation of electric vehicles (EV) is the key to reduce CO2 emissions while driving vehicles. However, there are issues which need to be solved such as cruising range, charging method, and spread of EVs among large-sized transport vehicles. We will discuss Electric Road System (Dynamic charge System or Dynamic Power Supply System) technology using ground infrastructure to directly supply charge running EVs with electricity. In this session, various systems such as contact type (conductive type) and non-contact type (wireless type) will be discussed.
Vehicle Characteristics Design Committee
Takamitsu Tajima (Honda R&D), Junya Yamakawa (National Defense Academy), Hitoshi Tsunashima (Nihon University), Yasuji Shibahata (Kanagawa Institute of Technology), Takayuki Satou (Hitachi Construction Machinery), Kazuki Shimamura (Japan Automobile Research Institute), Masaki Asano (Isuzu Advanced Engineering Center), Ryuzo Hayashi (Tokyo University of Science)
No. Title・Author (Affiliation)

Resilience and Economy Regarding Mobility Energy and the Advantage of Dynamic Charge in This Context

Keiichi Koseki・Kotaro Tanaka (Ibaraki University)

Considered Characteristics of Mobility Energy in view of social viability. Resilience and total economy considered most notable. Maintaining stakeholders' motivation, we anticipated certain potential regarding dynamic change system at toll road.


Effectivity of Trolley Technology in Converting Mining Dump Trucks to EVs

Jun Ikeda・Yohei Nakate・Kiminori Saitou・Takayuki Satou (Hitachi Construction Machinery)

Mining companies are seeking zero-emission mining dump trucks, but changing the power source from engines to batteries poses challenges due to the operating characteristics of mines. An effective way to solve this problem is to combine it with trolley technology.


Current Status and Issues of Dynamic Power Supply in the Railway Sector

Yoshihisa Hojo (Toyo Denki Seizo)

The railroad sector has long been electrified, and power is supplied while driving from overhead wires.
In recent years, some lines have been either de-electrified or abandoned due to the inability to sustain the cost of overhead line facilities.
In addition, there are some sections where trains cannot interchange due to differences in electrification methods.
This paper presents a survey report on the current status and issues of dynamic power supply in the railroad sector.


Development of an EV with a Large-Scale Photovoltaic System

Hidenori Mizuno・Katsuto Tanahashi・Takumi Takashima・Takashi Oozeki (AIST)・Toshio Hirota (Waseda University/AIST)

A demonstrative van-type photovoltaic-attached electric vehicle (PVEV), to be used as a local community bus, was developed. This presentation shows the specifications of the PVEV and some of the results obtained through test runs.

  • Session No.14 Electric Road System II (Dynamic Charge System, Dynamic Power Supply System) (OS)
  • May 22Room G318+G31912:10-13:50
  • Chair: Hitoshi Tsunashima (Nihon University)
Proliferation of electric vehicles (EV) is the key to reduce CO2 emissions while driving vehicles. However, there are issues which need to be solved such as cruising range, charging method, and spread of EVs among large-sized transport vehicles. We will discuss Electric Road System (Dynamic charge System or Dynamic Power Supply System) technology using ground infrastructure to directly supply charge running EVs with electricity. In this session, various systems such as contact type (conductive type) and non-contact type (wireless type) will be discussed.
Vehicle Characteristics Design Committee
Takamitsu Tajima (Honda R&D), Junya Yamakawa (National Defense Academy), Hitoshi Tsunashima (Nihon University), Yasuji Shibahata (Kanagawa Institute of Technology), Takayuki Satou (Hitachi Construction Machinery), Kazuki Shimamura (Japan Automobile Research Institute), Masaki Asano (Isuzu Advanced Engineering Center), Ryuzo Hayashi (Tokyo University of Science)
No. Title・Author (Affiliation)

Study on Effective Use of Regenerative Electric Power using 450kW Electric Road System

Kazuki Shimamura・Hina Tamiya (JARI)・Takamitsu Tajima (Honda R&D)

In order to significantly reduce CO2 emissions, it is necessary to replace heavy-duty trucks traveling on highways with dynamic charging EVs. Sufficient regeneration may not be possible due to battery capacity, SOC status, and internal resistance because the regenerative electric power of heavy-duty vehicles when driving down slope is large. Therefore, we studied the effects of retransmitting the regenerated electric power to ERS.


Introduction of Current Collectors Used in Electric Railway, Their Characteristics, and Test Method

Tatsuya Koyama (Railway Technical Research Institute)

Various types of current collectors adapted to various types of contact lines are used in electric railways. This paper provides an overview of current collectors used in electric railways and their characteristics for contributing to the development of contact power supply technology for EV. Furthermore, the test methods for evaluating the characteristics of current collectors are also introduced.


Introduction of Sliding Contact Materials Used in Current Collecting System of Electric Railway and Their Wear Property

Yoshitaka Kubota (Railway Technical Research Institute)

Current collectors in electric railways employ various sliding contact materials, such as sintered alloys and carbon-based composite materials, depending on the intended purpose. This paper provides an overview of the materials and discusses the wear in the field and wear factors, for contributing to the development of contact power supply technology for EV.


Overview and Technical Evaluation of Dynamic Conductive Road Charging Technologies

Saleh Ali・Volker Pickert (Newcastle University)・Mohammed Alharbi (Taibah University)

The concept of dynamic conductive power transfer (DCPT) is well-established and has been extensively employed in railway systems for several decades. However, the adaptation of DCPT for road traffic encounters significant challenges, particularly in the creation of practical, safe, and reliable mechanical interfaces that seamlessly integrate into both vehicles and road infrastructure. Consequently, the development of conductive Electric Road System (ERS) solutions has primarily been driven by industry efforts, resulting in limited information regarding detailed design procedures and optimization methods for the electrical and mechanical components involved in dynamic power transfer. This paper reviews and evaluates the available ERS technologies.

  • Session No.15 Advanced Power Electronics Component Technologies for Future Vehicles (OS)
  • May 22Room G318+G31914:30-15:45
  • Chair: Satoshi Yasuda (Toyota Motor)
Automotive Power Electronics Technology Committee
Kenta Emori (Nissan Motor), Satoshi Yasuda (Toyota Motor)
No. Title・Author (Affiliation)

Advanced Inverter Topologies Drive Efficient BEV Architectures

Ayman Ayad・Philip Brockerhoff (Vitesco Technologies)・Takuya Mimori (Vitesco Technologies Japan)

The new wide-bandgap technology such as Silicon Carbide (SiC) and Gallium Nitride (GaN) have recently entered the market of standard Silicon (Si) semiconductors as the main technology within automotive High-Voltage electronics. The new technologies enable advanced inverter topologies such as multi-level and multi-phase for automotive applications. In this presentation, standard and advanced inverter technologies and topologies will be introduced by analyzing system efficiency and cost.


Next Generation Cells for Future Battery Systems

Hendrick Löbberding・Matthias Rudolph・Jannis Kuepper・Michael Stapelbroek (FEV Europe)・Thomas Hülshorst (FEV Group)

Solid-state battery cells are the "next big thing" in electric vehicle technology to solve range anxiety, fear of hazardous incidents, and lacking charge infrastructure. However, technical maturity, production cost, and performance challenges remain. This presentation provides an overview of the state-of-the-art landscape for different cell chemistries and focuses on volumetric energy density as a key attribute for future cell roadmaps. Solid state cells can deliver the needed energy density, while the integration into the pack is rather cell-chemistry specific. Moreover, lesser energy density requirements may choose sodium-ion or LMFP chemistry as a cost-efficient alternative.


Power Loss Reduction Method by Power Route Distribution for In-Vehicle Power Net

Hiroshi Nakano・Nobuyasu Kanekawa (Hitachi)・Kentaro Jumonji (Hitachi Astemo)

This study provides a current dispersion method that avoids the local current concentration of the automotive power network to reduce the weight of the power supply line of the automotive power network compatible with zone architecture. This paper shows an algorithm that optimizes the power supply route to each zone using graph theory and the evaluation results by co-simulation with the electrical model.

  • Session No.16 Advanced Gasoline Engine Systems and Technologies I (OS)
  • May 22Room G401+G4029:30-11:10
  • Chair: Toshiaki Kitagawa (Kyushu University)
Presentations related to introduction of latest engines and technology for improvement of thermal efficiency and exhaust emissions reduction are expected, such as direct injection technology, atomization, mixture formation, ignition technology, combustion analysis, in-cylinder visualization, knocking and new combustion concept. Technologies are also expected related to electrification of the powertrains, engine parts, measurement system, sensors, control technology, auxiliary machinery, CAE, catalysts and GPF etc.
Gasoline Engine Committee
Kazuhiro Akihama (Nihon University), Satoaki Ichi (Kawasaki Motors), Takashi Kondo (Honda Motor), Daijirou Tanaka (Yamaha Motor), Takahiro Noyori (AVL Japan)
No. Title・Author (Affiliation)

CO2 Separation and Capture from Combustion Engine Exhaust Gas using Physical Adsorption Method
-Impact of Surface Properties of Absorbent on CO2 Adsorption and Desorption Characteristics-

Tadanori Yanai・Naotaka Wakaoka・Satoshi Yamazaki (Shizuoka Institute of Science and Technology)

A CO2 separation and capture system using a physical adsorption method with zeolite for internal combustion engines has been proposed. In this study, impact of surface properties of zeolite on the CO2 adsorption and desorption characteristics were investigated.


Commercial Hydrogen Engine with 50% BTE

Anton Arnberger (AVL List)・Andre Ferrarese (Tupy)・Patrick Gratzl (AVL List)

CO2 reduction goals for commercial vehicle fleets are pushing the developments of hydrogen engines. Hydrogen as a fuel in internal combustion engines for commercial applications allows either spark ignited lean burn or high-pressure direct injection concepts. Such late cycle direct injection offers benefits in terms of power density and transient response. Also the fuel efficiency potential is outstanding, a major contributor to optimize TCO for heavy duty vehicles.
AVL demonstrated 50% BTE on a heavy duty hydrogen engine using late cycle direct injection. In this session the development program, achievements, future potential and risks of this technology approach are presented.


Developments of a Vibration-Free I.C. Piston Engine Based on a “Basement and Radial” Configuration Design
-Firing Engine Operation of the 1st Prototype Engine and Design Theory for the Compact 2nd Prototype Engine-

Haruki Ushimaru・Momoka Komeda・Gen Takase・Ryosuke Hibi・Yojiro Ishino (Nagoya Institute of Technology)

A novel engine geometry, which named provisionally as "basement and radial configuration", was proposed and investigated. The geometry gives a vibration-free and kinematic energy fluctuation-free property to motions of multiple parts; i.e. pistons. In this configuration, all the moving pistons are driven by a single radial-arm-rotor. In this study, a 1st prototype three-cylinder internal combustion engine based on the geometry was designed and manufactured. A trial operation of the prototype engine resulted in achievement of firing operation without any support of electrical motor and so on. The theory and design for a compact 2nd prototype engine was also reported.


Study of the Reaction Mechanism of Hydrocarbons with High Blending Octane Number

Hidetaka Ishii・Fumiya Kawashima・Michio Nakano (Nippon Institute of Technology)

Focusing on hydrocarbons with a high blending octane number (BON), reaction products from the flow reactor were analyzed. Test fuels, which were composed by high BON hydrocarbon and primary reference fuel (PRF), and PRF with same octan number to the test fuels were used as fuels. Based on the results, the mechanism by which hydrocarbons with high BON improve octane number was investigated.

  • Session No.17 Advanced Gasoline Engine Systems and Technologies II (OS)
  • May 22Room G401+G40212:10-14:15
  • Chair: Daijiro Tanaka (Yamaha Motor)
Presentations related to introduction of latest engines and technology for improvement of thermal efficiency and exhaust emissions reduction are expected, such as direct injection technology, atomization, mixture formation, ignition technology, combustion analysis, in-cylinder visualization, knocking and new combustion concept. Technologies are also expected related to electrification of the powertrains, engine parts, measurement system, sensors, control technology, auxiliary machinery, CAE, catalysts and GPF etc.
Gasoline Engine Committee
Kazuhiro Akihama (Nihon University), Satoaki Ichi (Kawasaki Motors), Takashi Kondo (Honda Motor), Daijirou Tanaka (Yamaha Motor), Takahiro Noyori (AVL Japan)
No. Title・Author (Affiliation)

Development of Thermal Barrier Coating using Low Thermal Conductivity Material for Piston

Ryoko Yamanoi・Kazuki Ogiwara・Teppei Tano (Art Metal Mfg.)・Shohei Hosoo (NT&I)・Yasushi Murakami (Shinshu University)

For thermal efficiency improvement of engine, thermal barrier coating on the piston top surface is a remarkable technology. However, implementation of the coating with following capability of combustion gas temperature and durability is still a challenge.
In this study, the results of coating design using material with porous filler to achieve unprecedent low thermal conductivity are reported.


Study of HC Trap System to Reduce HC Emissions during Engine Cold-Start

Hiroki Takeori・Koji Nemoto・Yuki Oku・Ryohei Ikutomo・Takeshi Mori (Honda R&D)・Keita Nakao・Toyohiro Usui・Ryo Mitsuhashi・Naoto Nakazawa (TOSOH)・Yuichi Matsuo (Honda R&D)

A new HC trap system for reducing emissions was developed. As a result of the development of two zeolite materials, one zeolite can be trapped at a higher temperature than conventional materials, and another zeolite that can adsorb small HC, enhancement of adsorption performance and desorption suppression has been realized. In addition, the adsorption and purification performance has been improved by optimizing the arrangement of TWC and HC traps. These factors make it possible to reduce HC emissions at engine startup by 50% compared to TWCs only.


Mechanism Validation of Random PN Emission Occurrence without Depending on Engine Control

Hiroya Okada・Yoshirou Shiina・Tomohiro Nakayama・Takafumi Tado・Natsuki Takahata・Kenta Kimoto・Masao Onoue・Kunihiko Suganuma (SUBARU)

Random PN emission without depending on engine control was confirmed. To determine the mechanism elucidation, we performed visualization and used various engine specifications tests. As a result, it revealed that there is a high possibility that the PN is derived from the oil remained on the surface of combustion chamber wall, since piston top ring end-gap cannot catch liner-oil which will be a cause of partial rich burn.


Improvement of Thermal Efficiency for K-car Engine Applying Specification Exploration with Quality Engineering Tool

Norifumi Mizushima (AIST)・Kyohei Yamaguchi (Kokushikan University)・Youichi Iiyama・Yuji Kado (JAXA)

For improving thermal efficiency of K-car engine under usual operating conditions, the authors explored the optimized engine parameters applying quality engineering tool for 0D engine cycle simulation model. In this simulation study, the potential for improving thermal efficiency was clarified by exploring various engine geometrical parameters such as bore and stroke, compression ratio, connecting rod length and intake valve timing, etc. regardless of the engine displacement standard for K-cars. The results indicated that expanding the displacement beyond 660 cm3 and increasing the expansion ratio by using Miller cycle significantly improved the thermal efficiency for K-car engines.


Hydrogen Combustion Engine Hybridization: Challenges and Solutions Towards Optimal Efficiency and Lowest Emissions

Joel Op De Beeck・Badr-Din Lahmoumi・Jezer Costa・Krzysztof Potaczek・Marcos Carvalho-Barreto・Nissrine Harbil・Toshihiko Minami・Maungu Sandra (Plastic Omnium)

In coming years, European countries will set more stringent CO2 and NOx emission limits as seen as the EURO7 regulations.
To face those challenges, CO2-free low emission powertrain solutions will be needed,
and the feasibility of hydrogen ICE has been studied and proven.
Next steps are to optimize energy efficiency, whilst meeting the upcoming NOx emission standards.
This study analyses the optimal sizing of hybridization, enabling to use the engine at its full potential with low electrification cost.
In parallel, the effect of hybridization on engine-out emissions is studied to Optimize tailpipe emissions to be kept at the lowest level.

  • Session No.18 Advanced Gasoline Engine Systems and Technologies III (OS)
  • May 22Room G401+G40214:55-17:00
  • Chair: Takashi Kondo (Honda Motor)
Presentations related to introduction of latest engines and technology for improvement of thermal efficiency and exhaust emissions reduction are expected, such as direct injection technology, atomization, mixture formation, ignition technology, combustion analysis, in-cylinder visualization, knocking and new combustion concept. Technologies are also expected related to electrification of the powertrains, engine parts, measurement system, sensors, control technology, auxiliary machinery, CAE, catalysts and GPF etc.
Gasoline Engine Committee
Kazuhiro Akihama (Nihon University), Satoaki Ichi (Kawasaki Motors), Takashi Kondo (Honda Motor), Daijirou Tanaka (Yamaha Motor), Takahiro Noyori (AVL Japan)
No. Title・Author (Affiliation)

Model-Based Research of Series Hybrid Powertrain Fuel Efficiency

Tomohisa Kumagai (The Research association of Automotive Internal Combustion Engines)・Masaki Naruke・Tomohiro Kanda・Takayuki Ito・Takaaki Kitamuara (JARI)

Further fuel economy of gasoline-powered vehicles is of great importance for achieving carbon neutrality of the society. The present paper deals with a concept study of a series hybrid powertrain to reduce CO2 emissions as much as possible, considering both engine and vehicle key performances. The study utilized model-based research using 0D/1D/3D-CAE and DOE optimization techniques.


The Optimization of Cooling System of Engine with Integrated Thermal Management Module

Changjoo Lee (Hyundai Motor)

In this study, the turbo outlet side and the reservoir side circuit were separated to prevent flow to the reservoir side when the zero flow state. Additionally, by using zero flow state even in the maximum heating mode, heating performance has also been improved, and fuel efficiency and emission improvement effects on the real road are also expected. Through this, the effect of improving the warm-up speed and the effect of improving fuel efficiency, emission, and heating performance were confirmed.


2.4L Turbocharged Gasoline Engine for New Body-on-Frame Truck Application

Keiichi Goto・Akihiro Ikeda・Alistair Bridge・Yasuyuki Takaki・Noriyuki Yamada・Haruhito Fujimura (Toyota Motor)

A new 2.4L Turbocharged gasoline engine developed,based TNGA Turbo series for transverse application, specifically for longditudinal installation into Frame based vehicles. Turbocharger and intake/exhaust were optimised to improve performance, engine structure was developed to adapt to off-road needs, high speed combustion adopted for emission performance, synergy with hybrid system was incorporated alongside complimentary technlogies.


V6 3.5L-Turbocharged Gasoline Engine Development for New Premium Off-Road SUV

Hiroshi Kuma・Akihiro Ikeda・Yuya Yoshikawa・Hiroyuki Asahina・Haruto Ura (Toyota Motor)・Toshihiro Sugitani (IHI)

This paper shows newly developed 3.5L V6 Turbocharged engine for premium SUV. Based on the high-speed combustion that characterizes the turbocharged TNGA series, new high-efficiency turbocharger and optimized intake and exhaust systems are applied for class-leading low-end torque for off-road drivability, output performance and environmental performance.


Development for 8C New Rotary Engine
-Continual Challenge to Rotary Engine Combustion Technology-

Kiyotaka Tanaka・Hiroyuki Hidaka・Takeshi Yokoo・Hiroki Morimoto・Toru Miyamoto・Katsuya Nakajima・Takuya Kikuchi・Yugou Sunagare・Tetsuya Nomoto・Yoshito Wakabayashi (Mazda)

Mazda has developed an 8C rotary engine, making a comeback after approximately 11 years.Ideal combustion was pursued with a higher compression ratio than a 13B previous model, direct fuel injection, cooled EGR system, and a change in the shape of combustion chamber.The displacement was optimized as a generator-dedicated unit.As a result,a significant improvement in thermal efficiency and full-range λ=1 operation were achieved.

  • Session No.19 Driver Perception, Cognition, and Emotion (OS)
  • May 22Room G4039:30-10:45
  • Chair: Ryuzo Hayashi (Tokyo University of Science)
Drivers understand the driving environment through various sensory organs. This session focuses on such driver's perceptual and cognitive processes. In addition, this session also discusses driver's psychological behavior such as emotions.
Vehicle Characteristics Design Committee, Active Safety Engineering Committee, Human Factor Committee, Driver Assessment Technologies Committee, Image Information Application Committee
Takamitsu Tajima (Honda R&D), Tomoyuki Shino (Tokyo Institute of Technology), Hiroyuki Sakai (Toyota Central R&D Labs.), Kazumasa Onda (Suzuki Motor), Yohei Michitsuji (Ibaraki University), Ryuzo Hayashi (Tokyo University of Science), Toshihiro Hiraoka (JARI)
No. Title・Author (Affiliation)

Generation Method of Visual Information to Reduce Motion Sickness Based on its Computational Model

Yujiro Tamura・Takahiro Wada・Hailong Liu (NAIST)

We propose a method to reduce motion sickness in vehicle occupants by presenting visual motion cues. A model of motion sickness that takes into account head movements and visual information as inputs is utilized. Visual information that minimizes motion sickness when vehicle motion is given is generated, and presented to the occupants. Experimental results demonstrate that our proposed method reduces motion sickness.


Effect of Visual Information on Motion Sickness Mitigation

Yoshimi Kobayashi・Yuto Korogi・Akihito Kamiya (Toyota Motor)・Ryo Kodama・Nobushige Fujieda (Toyota Central R&D Labs.)

It is said that motion sickness occurs when there is a contradiction in the information obtained from multiple sensory organs. With the advancement of autonomous driving and driving assistance, an increase in motion sickness is perceived due to the driver becoming a passenger and an increase in subtasks. In this study, we aimed to alleviate motion sickness by abstractly representing vehicle motion information from the missing visual perspective, assuming video viewing inside the car. We will now report the results of this attempt.


Effect of Image Features on Visibility in Rear Vision by Camera Monitoring System (CMS)

Ryunosuke Kiyota・Riku Adachi (Keio University)・Seishi Takagi・Chiharu Sasaki・Kento Mera (Penstone)・Miwa Nakanishi (Keio University)

When replacing traditional rearview mirrors with Camera Monitoring Systems (CMS), it is known that the burden of focus transition from front to rear vision increases. However, processing the image on the monitor can potentially improve visibility, especially in rainy or nighttime conditions. This study aims to identify the image processing conditions that minimize focus transition burden and optimize visibility, through ergonomic experiments.

  • Session No.20 Driver State Monitoring (OS)
  • May 22Room G40313:10-14:50
  • Chair: Toshihiro Hiraoka (JARI)
This session focuses on monitoring methods of driver states (arousal level, physical and mental fatigue, etc.), which includes biological sensing techniques and physiological data analysis methods.
Vehicle Characteristics Design Committee, Active Safety Engineering Committee, Human Factor Committee, Driver Assessment Technologies Committee, Image Information Application Committee
Takamitsu Tajima (Honda R&D), Tomoyuki Shino (Tokyo Institute of Technology), Hiroyuki Sakai (Toyota Central R&D Labs.), Kazumasa Onda (Suzuki Motor), Yohei Michitsuji (Ibaraki University), Ryuzo Hayashi (Tokyo University of Science), Toshihiro Hiraoka (JARI)
No. Title・Author (Affiliation)

Analysis of Driver Stress Coping Styles Caused by Driving Environment and Driving Characteristics

Tomoro Okajima・Kent Nagumo・Akio Nozawa (Aoyama Gakuin University)

In this study, we focused on two types of stress coping responses that people exhibit to external stress stimuli: active and passive coping responses. These responses are considered to be effective as indicators for evaluating driver safety and comfort. We analyzed stress coping responses of drivers caused by driving environment and driving characteristics based on hemodynamics and suggested its effectiveness as indicators for evaluating driver safety and comfort.


Estimating the Gazing Point of Drivers using Machine Learning with High Generalizing Accuracy

Yui Miyoshi・Yuji Matsuki (Fukuoka Institute of Technology)

In our previous study, the authors developed a method to estimate a driver's gaze point on a driving simulator screen using machine learning. This method utilized facial images captured by three cameras. However, its performance was evaluated with only one participant, and the study did not consider its generalization accuracy. In this study, we have enhanced the model to achieve high generalization accuracy using data captured from 11 experimental participants.


Measurement Method and Evaluation of Occupant's Back during Seating

Hotaka Wakasugi・Shuta Imai・Nobuaki Nakazawa・Shinya Okamoto・Hisato Fukuda (Gunma University)・Tsutomu Iwase (Gunma University/SUBARU)・Shunpei Nakamura・Kyohei Uchikata・Masami Handa・Yusuke Takagi (SUBARU)

This study proposes a method for measuring occupant posture during seating and its application. We developed a measurement system that combines the measurement of spinal column shape using an accelerometer and the estimation of the relative position of the spinal column to the seat surface using image processing. Using this system, various seating postures on a car seat were measured and evaluated.


Generality Evaluation of Human Behavior Model in Driving Based on Recurrent Neural Network

Suzuka Seki・Jun Ishikawa (Tokyo Denki University)

This paper reports evaluation results of the generality of a human behavior model for driving based on a recurrent neural network (RNN) that the authors have proposed. Specifically, the evaluation was conducted by simulation to check whether the RNNs trained with M sequences, the amplitude of which is ±1, can reproduce appropriate responses for different amplitudes and smooth trajectories. As a result, the generality of the RNN models was confirmed.

  • Session No.21 Analysis and Modeling of Driver Behavior (OS)
  • May 22Room G40315:30-17:35
  • Chair: Motoki Shino (Tokyo Institute of Technology)
This session aims at exploring driver behavior and its underlying mechanisms. It also includes discussion on analytical means of driver behavior, such as dashcams and driving simulators.
Vehicle Characteristics Design Committee, Active Safety Engineering Committee, Human Factor Committee, Driver Assessment Technologies Committee, Image Information Application Committee
Takamitsu Tajima (Honda R&D), Tomoyuki Shino (Tokyo Institute of Technology), Hiroyuki Sakai (Toyota Central R&D Labs.), Kazumasa Onda (Suzuki Motor), Yohei Michitsuji (Ibaraki University), Ryuzo Hayashi (Tokyo University of Science), Toshihiro Hiraoka (JARI)
No. Title・Author (Affiliation)

Relationship between Collision Avoidance Emergency Braking Frequency Measured with Drive Recorder of Elderly Drivers and Driving Instructor's Evaluation of Driving in Urban Areas
-Study on Driver Characteristics for Delaying Driving Cessation (40)-

Takashi Yonekawa・Hirofumi Aoki (Nagoya University)・Kan Shimazaki (Kindai University)・Masae Kojima・Sueharu Nagiri・Satsuki Yamauchi・Kunitomo Aoki・Akio Hirano (Nagoya University)

The increase in traffic accidents due to the decline in driving ability of elderly drivers has been a problem. We investigated the relationship between the frequency of emergency braking for collision avoidance per mile driven measured by a drive recorder of 25 elderly drivers aged 59 to 86 years and their driving ability evaluation in urban areas by a driving instructor. It was found that elderly drivers who had a high frequency of emergency braking for collision avoidance had a low rating of driving ability.


Effects of Visual Field Training on Driving Performance and Dynamic Useful Field of View in Elderly Drivers
-Study on Driver Characteristics for Delaying Driving Cessation (42)-

Kunitomo Aoki・Akio Hirano (Nagoya University)・Kazuhiko Yamashita・Hidenori Horita・Kazumasa Onda (Suzuki Motor)・Sueharu Nagiri (Nagoya University)・Makoto Inagami (Gunma University)・Hiroshi Kishi・Takasi Yonekawa・Hirofumi Aoki (Nagoya University)

We examined the effects of visual field training on driving performance and dynamic useful field of view (UFOV) in elderly drivers. Participants performed the dynamic UFOV task while driving in an immersive driving simulator (DS). The intervention group received visual field training with a tablet device twice daily, while a control group did not receive any training, and both groups again performed the DS driving test one week later.


Classifying Elderly Drivers and Their Features by using a Simplified Questionnaire Comprehensively Captures Driving Characteristics (SQ-CCDC)
-Study on Driver Characteristics for Delaying Driving Cessation (41)-

Masae Kojima (Nagoya University)・Kojiro Shojima (National Center for University Entrance Examinations)・Hirofumi Aoki・Takashi Yonekawa (Nagoya University)

With the aim of optimizing and encouraging the spread of individualized and effective safe driving support, in this report, data from a web-based survey of 1650 elderly group members in their 60s to 80s were analyzed. By using the ranks obtained from the SQ-CCDC (Simplified Questionnaire Comprehensively Captures Driving Characteristics), multiple correspondence analysis was carried out, and the features of the subjective evaluation could be visually grasped.


Evaluation of the Influence of Information to Encourage Early Detection of Pedestrians for Right Turning Driver's Behavior at Signalized Intersections

Chinami Fukui・Sho Takahashi (Hokkaido University)・Hidekatsu Hamaoka (Akita University)・Toru Hagiwara (Hokkaido University)

We displayed an icon to inform the drivers of the presence of crossing pedestrians when turning right at a signalized intersection. And the effect of the icon for driving behavior was evaluated. Using the virtual reality driving simulator (VRDS), we conducted an experiment in which two types of information were displayed. The results suggested that the display of information helps to detect pedestrians earlier and leads to a reduction in unsafe driving.


Concerning the Relation of Camera Specification of Digital Inner Mirror to Accident Risk in Lane-Change Task

Takuya Izumiguchi・Kento Mera・Chiharu Sasaki・Hideki Shinsaka・Seishi Takagi (Penstone)・Tohru Yoshioka・Keisuke Suzuki (Kagawa University)

The effect of the visual information by the digital rear-view display on the reduction of accident risk during lane-change task was evaluated by using the driving simulator. From the results, we gained insight into the proper field of view angle and attachment position of the camera for rear-view display, which would help drivers to change lanes in more safe manner.

  • Session No.22 Cars That Think and Communicate -Beyond Autonomous Driving- (OS)
  • May 22Room G4049:30-12:10
  • Chair: Yuichiro Toda (Okayama University)
In highly autonomous vehicles, the car must be able to communicate with the driver, other vehicles, and various other targets, and at the same time, it must be able to predict the surrounding environment, think and move autonomously. We look forward to cross-disciplinary discussions on the wide range of technologies required to realize such systems.
Electronics Engineering Committee
Yoshiaki Sakagami (National Institute of Information and Communications Technology), Shiho Matsushita (Nissan Motor), Tomonori Kawakami (Hitachi Astemo), Masanori Takeda (Honda R&D), Naoyuki Kubota (Tokyo Metropolitan University), Yuichiro Toda (Okayama University)
No. Title・Author (Affiliation)

AUTOSAR Activities for Realizing SDV
-Overview of Software Architecture and Standardization Activities Trend-

Masahiro Goto (AUTOSAR)

I reported AUTOSAR activities for SDV in JSAE Spring Congress 2023 forcued on Vehicle Interface. I will report the progresses of AUTOSAR activities and collaborations betwee standardization organizations.


Infrastructure Sensor Installation Support System for Geofenced Autonomous Driving

Yuto Imanishi (Hitachi)・Yasuhiro Fuse (Hitachi Astemo)

To accelerate the social implementation of autonomous driving, it is important to repeat the process of technological development, environmental improvement, and evaluation of social acceptance in a short demonstration cycle. In this study, in order to speed up the integration of geofenced autonomous driving, we investigated an installation assistance system that automatically calibrates the installation posture of infrastructure sensors, which are the components of the system.


Improvement of Movement Efficiency for Autonomous Vehicle by Model Predictive Control Considering Operational Design Domain

Teppei Saitoh・Ryu Narikawa・Shinji Ishihara (Hitachi)

Automated driving control technology has been developed in order to provide mobility solutions. This research shows a real-time vehicle control technology that considers conditions on a driving route several kilometers ahead using model predictive control to improve movement efficiency with avoiding deviations from operational design domain, which is defined for the automated vehicle, due to changes in driving environment conditions.


Development of Reinforcement Learning System for Urban Driving Task

Wei-Fen Hsieh・Katsuo Semmyo・Shin Sakamoto・Masahiko Watanabe (NTT DATA Automobiligence Research Center)

We have been researching a reinforcement learning framework for autonomous driving in urban areas and reported the effectiveness of driving behavior models acquired through reinforcement learning under specific complex scenarios. This report focuses on various urban driving scenarios, and to adapt to different road users, we expanded the reward function. The results indicate the effectiveness of the proposed reinforcement learning framework.


AI-Enhanced Energy Management in Centralized E/E Architecture
-Fail-Operational Systems and Driver-Adaptive Efficiency-

Lin Li・Thomas Zipper・Martin Schlecker (AVL Software and Functions)

This presentation delves into AI-driven energy management in vehicles employing a centralized E/E architecture. The system showcases a fail-operational low- and high-voltage energy supply with three independent energy sources. Orchestrated by a central vehicle computer, it employs AI algorithms for optimal energy distribution. Zone controllers with integrated eFuses enable precise and fine-grained energy paths. A dedicated fail-operational zone guarantees the reliability of safety-critical functions, particularly x-by-wire features in advanced vehicles (L3 and above). Furthermore, the system incorporates AI-based driver adaptation, leveraging predictive analysis of the driver's usage patterns to improve the overall energy efficiency and enhance the driving range.


Environmental Magnetic Field Map Generation and Localization Method for Autonomous Vehicles on Roads

Kyoya Ishii・Keisuke Shimono・Yoshihiro Suda (The University of Tokyo)・Takayuki Ando・Hirotaka Mukumoto (Aichi Steel)

Vehicle localization is one of the key technical factors for autonomous vehicles on roads. Popular methods include GNSS and visual methods using cameras or LiDAR. However, there are conditions where each method can fail to localize. This research introduces a new method of vehicle localization using environmental magnetic field. Here, we propose a 2-dimensional magnetic field map generation method, and localization method using the generated map.

  • Session No.23 Research on the Recognition Technology Required for Automated Driving I (OS)
  • May 22Room G40413:10-14:50
  • Chair: Keisuke Yoneda (Kanazawa University)
Autonomous Driving Technology Committee
Naoki Suganuma (Kanazawa University), Takayoshi Yamashita (Chubu University), Junichi Meguro (Meijo Unviersity)
No. Title・Author (Affiliation)

Disparity Estimation Based on Feature Map Correlation using Contrastive Learning

Takeru Ninomiya・Takeshi Endo・Hideaki Kido (Hitachi)・Kota Irie (Hitachi Astemo)

Depth information can be estimated with high accuracy using deep learning. However, for camera pairs with long baseline, the accuracy of disparity is reduced because the visual difference between left and right images. In this paper, we proposed disparity estimation method based on feature map correlation using contrastive learning. By taking into account visual differences between the left and right images, we improve the accuracy of disparity estimation. Experimental results show that the proposed method improves accuracy within a neighborhood of 20 m.


Research on Small Object Detection on Deep Learning in Autonomous Driving

Enhi Sen (dSPACE Japan)・Ryota Yagami (Nagaoka University of Technology)

In the verification of autonomous driving and its algorithms, it is very important to detect small objects in the distance, but it is difficult to accurately detect the small objects themselves and the specified size. Therefore, this research uses SAHI, which can make inferences without scaling the images down, GAN, which can enlarge images, and fine-tuning with small object dataset, to accurately detect objects up to a specified size.


Study on Method of Development of Driving-Decisions Model for Automated Bus Traveling Fixed Route

Daichi Minagawa・Manabu Omae (Keio University)

In this presentation, we propose a method to efficiently construct an inference model for driving decisions by training a model that outputs the required driving decision results according to the location of an automated shuttlebus, based on images collected during route travel. We confirmed that this method is effective in adding and expanding the function of driving decisions when automating buses that travel fixed routes.


Necessity of an Estimation Function of Driver's Driving Willingness in Autonomous Driving Systems

Toshiya Arakawa・Kazuya Itakura (Nippon Institute of Technology)・Jun Tajima (Misaki Design)

We discusses the necessity of a function for understanding whether or not the driver has the willingness to drive a vehicle in a Level 2 or higher autonomous driving system. We also construct a discriminator of the driver's willingness to drive by machine learning, and evaluate the validity of the estimation of the driver's willingness to drive by the constructed discriminator.

  • Session No.24 Research on the Recognition Technology Required for Automated Driving II (OS)
  • May 22Room G40415:30-17:35
  • Chair: Akisue Kuramoto (Tokyo Institute of Technology)
Autonomous Driving Technology Committee
Naoki Suganuma (Kanazawa University), Takayoshi Yamashita (Chubu University), Junichi Meguro (Meijo Unviersity)
No. Title・Author (Affiliation)

Study on Robust Self-Localization against Seasonal Environmental Changes for Automated Vehicles

Shun Nishimura・Manabu Omae (Keio University)

This study proposes a self-localization method utilizing artificial structures to improve the reliability of self-localization accuracy for long-term in locations affected by plant-induced environmental changes. In this paper, we report on the construction of a high-precision map and a self-localization algorithm for artificial structures, as well as the results of self-localization accuracy in different seasons.


Implementing Localization using 4D Imaging Radar

Sota Izumi・Keisuke Yoneda・Ryo Yanase・Mohammad Aldibaja・Naoki Suganuma (Kanazawa University)

Accurate self-localization is important to realize safe autonomous driving. Conventionally, millimeter-wave radar has been used for self-localization to ensure robustness against changes in the surrounding environment, such as snow and heavy rain. But there is an issue of estimated accuracy due to low resolution. This study aims to improve accuracy of self-localization while maintaining high robustness against environmental changes by implementing localization module which uses 4D imaging radar with high resolution.


Robust Map Matching for Environmental Changes using CNN

Kota Jimbo・Keisuke Yoneda・Ryo Yanase・Mohammad Aldibaja・Naoki Suganuma (Kanazawa University)

Localization is important to enable safe autonomous driving. When environmental changes occur, infrared reflectance from the road surface decreases due to rainy weather and blurring of white lines. Then, the localization accuracy is reduced by using a method based on infrared reflectance by LiDAR. The objective of this research is to achieve robust matching against environmental changes by using convolutional neural network, CNN.


Multi-Agent Approach for AD/ADAS Cross-Country Virtual Validation

Reza Rezaei・Ravibhai Vaghasiya・Jacob Grandmontagne・Morteza Molaei・Frank Reifenrath (IAV)

This paper introduces a novel Multi-Agent Approach coupled with high-precision environment modeling for cross-country virtual validation of AD/ADAS systems. It focuses on accurately representing country-specific traffic signs, rules, conditions, and driving scenarios, highlighting critical situations under various operating conditions.
Through the utilization of advanced AI-based multi-agent modeling, the realism and accuracy of simulated scenarios are further enhanced. The advantages and limitations of multi-agent approach, considering diverse driver behaviors, traffic rule violations, etc. for providing a comprehensive assessment of the AD functions will be discussed based on representative simulation results from traffic scenarios in Japan and Germany.


SIL, HIL, OTA – A Study on Different Usages of Simulation and Validation

Andreas Himmler (dSPACE)・Hiroki Hanaoka・Takashi Yamada (dSPACE Japan)

In the development of perception and control algorithms for ADAS (Advanced Driver Assistance System) and AD (Autonomous Driving), it is important to verify the development results at the earliest possible stage to both shorten the development period and ensure quality. The challenge is how to use both simulation and actual products while taking into account the fidelity of simulation and the flexibility of testing. This paper studies how to distinguish the use of simulation from actual products, especially when over-the-air simulation is effective in the validation of systems using radar sensors, which are indispensable for ADAS and AD applications in recent years.

  • Session No.25 Next-Generation Advanced Production Engineering for Automotive Material I (OS)
  • May 22Room G414+G4159:30-11:35
  • Chair: Takashi Matsumura (Tokyo Denki University)
Proposal of advanced production technologies to support the manufacturing of future mobility for automotive materials.
Advanced Manufacturing Technology Committee, Materials Committee, Manufacturing Engineering Committee
Takashi Matsumura (Tokyo Denki University), Koshiro Aoki (Shibaura Institue of Technology), Jun Ichinose (FASOTEC), Yoshitomi Yamada (Isuzu Motors), Ryousuke Date (Daihatsu Motor), Hiroki Sugiyama (Mazda)
No. Title・Author (Affiliation)

Application Development of Al-Si Coated Material to Direct Resistance Heating in the Steel Tube Air Forming Process (Second Report)

Masashi Kawakami・Ryohei Ikeda・Kimihiro Nogiwa・Norieda Ueno・Hiroyuki Kan・Hiroyuki Kumeno (Sumitomo Heavy Industries)

STAF (Steel Tube Air Forming) is a hot blow forming process for steel tubes which can form car body frames with high strength and continuously varied cross sections in length. In the first report, we reported on the avoidance of hot-dip coating bias of Al-Si coated steel pipes heated by resistance heating. We report the results of optimizing the heating process and evaluating the plating quality.


Establishing Technology to Enhance Stability of Press Production of Titanium Fuel Tanks for Motorcycles

Motoaki Takashima・Satoshi Akiniwa・Yuta Shimada (Honda Motor)

Our titanium fuel tanks for motorcycles have higher requirements in terms of shape, airtightness, and appearance quality than general titanium stamped parts. This has resulted in a narrow control range of manufacturing conditions. Therefore, in order to improve the stability of production, we clarified the appropriate material properties and the optimum conditions for lubrication and forming for the titanium fuel tank. As a result, the degree of freedom in the design and shape of the product has also been increased.


A Study on Bonding Force of Laser-Patterned Metals and Thermoplastic Composite using Automated Fiber Placement

Junyeong Jeong・Youn Il Jung (Hyundai Motor)・Haengseon Choi (SECO)・Changkyoo Park (Seoul National University of Science and Technology)・Maruo Kaznobu (GLOBAL POLYACETAL)・Yasunari Kuratani (KADO)・Jeongseok Kang (Korea Carbon Industry Promotion Agency)

To achieve a weight reduction goal in automotive industry, applications of reinforced plastic with glass or carbon fiber composites to a car body has been actively considered due to its lightweight compared to structural metals such as steels and aluminium alloys. However, high materials price and low productivity of the fiber-reinforced plastic (FRP) composite limit its applications in the car body. Therefore, we studied hybrid technologies of laser texturing of metal surface and bonding technology using automated fiber placement (AFP) that can locally apply FRP composite to existing steel or aluminium car body parts


Mechanism Elucidation of Appearance Defects in Interior Resin Part by “Simulation Coupling Fluid Analysis and Thermal Elastoplastic Structural Analysis”

Akihide Nakata・Tatsumi Onishi・Lihao Shu (Kasai Kogyo)

In automotive interior resin parts, the appearance defects are chronic problems. Conventional approach has been made mainly by focusing on resin flow and behavior after demolding, but unresolved problems still remains . This research focus on the solidification behavior inside mold after resin filled and analyze the behavior by “simulation coupling fluid analysis and thermal elastoplastic structural analysis”. As a result, the white defects occurred in actual parts are reproduced on the co-simulation and elucidate the mechanism.


Spiral Cutter for Motor Housing to Promote EV
-DX for Tool Development Contributing to Carbon Neutrality and Its Application-

Shosei Goto (Kyocera)

Currently, the EV shift is accelerating in the auto industry. In this paper, the process in the development of cutting tools for the processing of motor housings specific to EVs is summarized by introducing design examples using DX, and the development toward carbon neutrality, which has recently become a social issue by contributing to the improvement of productivity.

  • Session No.26 Next-Generation Advanced Production Engineering for Automotive Material II (OS)
  • May 22Room G414+G41512:35-14:15
  • Chair: Jun Ichinose (Fasotec)
Proposal of advanced production technologies to support the manufacturing of future mobility for automotive materials.
Advanced Manufacturing Technology Committee, Materials Committee, Manufacturing Engineering Committee
Takashi Matsumura (Tokyo Denki University), Koshiro Aoki (Shibaura Institue of Technology), Jun Ichinose (FASOTEC), Yoshitomi Yamada (Isuzu Motors), Ryousuke Date (Daihatsu Motor), Hiroki Sugiyama (Mazda)
No. Title・Author (Affiliation)

Control Effects of Thermal Deformation by Machine Tool using Environmental Characteristics of the Factory

Naohiko Suzuki・Shouta Shinmoto・Yusuke Nanbu・Yoshiaki Ishino (Takamatsu Machinery)

Thermal displacement affects the machining accuracy of machine tools, and various countermeasures are being considered. For example, there are methods to suppress the temperature rise of the machine by cooling the heat source. The most common method for cooling heat sources is to circulate cooling water at a constant temperature, but this involves an increase in cost and energy consumption. This study devised a way to stabilize machining accuracy by utilizing the environmental characteristics of a factory and devising a machine tool bed structure that utilizes air with a relatively stable ambient temperature.


Enhancing the Efficiency of Remote Support for Off-Board Diagnostics
-Construction of a System to Enable Secure Remote Support of Off-Board Diagnostics-

Shogo Sawasaki (Honda Motor)

The external diagnostic equipment that has been used to inspect the functional quality of finished vehicles has been combined with a secure remote authentication system with a constant connection to the cloud for information security, which is becoming more important every year, and with comprehensive software that can freely distribute inspection software and data necessary for finished vehicle warranty through the cloud.


Development of Element Technologies for Integrated Hot-Stamping Parts

Naoki Kimoto・Masahiro Kubo・Kenta Ikegami・Toru Yonebayashi・Tasuku Zeniya・Satoshi Shirakami・Hiroshi Yoshida (Nippon Steel)

The author's group has been developed element technologies for integrated hot-stamping parts. In this study, a structure has been developed that produces high crashworthiness using high-strength materials. And a formability improvement method has been developed that controlled the flow of steel sheet at the corners where it is difficult to form in integrated parts.


Strength Improvement of CFRTP by Mixing Long and Short Fibers

Mutsuki Hamada・Taichi Umedu・Souichiro Nishino (Ibaraki University)・Hidemaru Sootome (Industrial Technology Innovation Center of Ibaraki Prefecture)

CFRTP, with its light weight and high rigidity, is finding increasing application as a structural material. On the other hand, there is a problem that carbon fibers damage molds during injection molding. In this study, a method was devised to maintain strength even when the amount of carbon fibers is reduced by mixing long and short fibers. We report on the results of CT scans and fracture surface observations of the mixture of long and short carbon fibers.

  • Session No.27 Metal and Ceramic Materials
  • May 22Room G414+G41514:55-16:35
  • Chair: Hidemi Kato (Tohoku University)
No. Title・Author (Affiliation)

Prediction of Critical Threshold Stress Intensity Range for Crack Growth

Gyoko Oh (Tokyo Roki)

The initiation and propagation of cracks near the fatigue limit in notched steel plate samples were observed and analyzed using fracture mechanics parameters. The threshold stress intensity range had a good power function correlation with the effective notch length, but it depended on the notch length and did not reach a constant value. By identifying and using the critical power exponent, a prediction model was proposed for the critical threshold stress intensity range that becomes a constant value.


Development of Non-Heat Trated Aluminum Alloy for Body Structure Applied Integrated Casting

Jae Sun Lim・Dong Ha Kang・Tae Seong Lim・Jun Beom Lee (Hyundai Motor)

Recently, as environmental regulations of automobiles and development of electric vehicles are actively progressing, demands for improving fuel efficiency are increasing. Among them, in order to minimize parts and reduce assembly costs, the integrated development of aluminum bodies is being actively developed by various global companies. Many problems are expected to apply large die casting, in body structure, two fundamental challenges must be overcome. First, the aluminum-integrated cast must satisfy the stability of vehicle collision behavior. Second, it is recognized as an important task to be solved by reducing the cost of post-processing.
By developing an non-heat-treated aluminum alloy for a body considering recyclability, we have prepared a foundation to contribute to the reduction of carbon generation by responding to the development of large-scale vehicle body parts.


Reduction of Heavy Rare Earths by Composite Magnets for IPM Motors

Shunsuke Takahashi・Yutaka Sasaki (Hino Motors)

Magnets with high coercivity are often used for IPM motors. However, demagnetization resistance is usually required at the ends of the magnets. If only the center part of the magnet is replaced with a low coercivity magnet, the amount of heavy rare earth elements can be reduced.In this study, we verified whether the performance can be maintained after the magnet replacement with the conditions (including inverter conditions) other than the magnet material remaining unchanged.


Prevention of Temperature Reduce of Exhaust Gas Catalyst with Latent Heat Storage Material

Junji Itou・Tetsuro Naito・Koichi Yamaguchi・Kazuyuki Shiratori (Nissan Motor)

Towards to realize carbon neutral at 2050, Nissan forwards electrification such as series hybrid system e-POWER.
It would be concern that performance of exhaust gas catalyst might be sufficient if temperature of exhaust gas catalyst would reduce while engine stops.
To solve this concern, Nissan have developed new catalyst with latent heat storage material to prevent temperature reduce of exhaust catalyst.

  • Session No.28 Social Change and Next Generation Mobility I (OS)
  • May 22Room G416+G4179:30-11:35
  • Chair: Toshiyuki Sugimachi (Tokyo City University)
Mobility-Society Committee
Yoshihiro Suda (The University of Tokyo), Takahiro Suzuki (Reitaku University), Takashi Kobayashi (NALTEC), Toshiyuki Sugimachi (Tokyo City University)
No. Title・Author (Affiliation)

The Introduction of the Regulations and the Policies for Automated Driving in Japan

Hirotoshi Inayoshi (MLIT)

Automated driving technology is expected to solve a lot of social issues, such as reducing traffic accidents and sustaing local transports. Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (MLIT) has been working on earlier realization of automated driving through various activies including establishing safety regulations and conducting field tests. This presentation introduces the policy trends on automated driving of MLIT.


Methods for Supporting Resident-Led Community Place Creation, and the Value of the Community Place for Residents
-Action Research for High-Rise Housing Development Residents of Nagoya City-

Yoko Kumai (Toyota Central R&D Labs.)・Chikako Goto・Sae Konodo (The University of Tokyo)・Hideo Nakane・Narihito Tatsuda (Toyota Central R&D Labs.)・Naoko Cho (The University of Tokyo)・Teruhiko Yoshimura (Nihon Fukushi University)・Hideki Koizumi (The University of Tokyo)

We used action research to investigate resident-led methods for community place (CP) creation to connect generations, and examined the value of the CP and how to continue it. Analysis of questionnaires, interviews, and observations led to creation of a sustainable CP. The requirements for people to gather at the CP were convenient access and high visibility of the gathered individuals. The presence of a foreign resident had a positive effect on interchanges between generations. Findings revealed that the CP could be an attractive destination for shut-ins, and the residents could enjoy a variety of benefits attributable to the CP.


Reuse of Automotive Drive Motors in Offshore Wind Power Generation in Japan (Report 2)
-Framework for Inter-Sectoral Cooperation Towards Full Energy Self-Sufficiency-

Masahiko Teramoto (Environmetal Veterans Firm)

The Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry's "Comprehensive Energy Statistics Table" develops the energy pathway from primary supply to final consumption of energy in Japan, allowing the W2T efficiency of each sector to be calculated. The second report adds the user end consumption ratio to the pathway and quantifies the relationship between W2W with the offshore wind power generation system shown in the first report as the axis, and provides a perspective on the feasibility of complete energy self-sufficiency through the use of renewable energy as the main source of power.


A Study on the Community Analysis of Bacteria/Fungi in Vehicles

Tae Hee Lee・Dae Woon Sung (Hyundai Motor)

From COVID-19, Hygiene issue has rapidly become as a major cause of the shrinking sharing economy. Customers have preferred privately owned vehicles than public transportation, for example, buses, trains, taxis, and sharing cars. Currently, microbial research is mostly focused on humans. This paper examines the microorganisms inside the vehicle from a holistic view and analyzes DNA(deoxyribose nucleic acid) clusters of bacteria/fungi in the reference for determining the direction when applying sanitation technology.


Development of Synchronous Reluctance Generator for Biomass Power

Azusa Takahashi・Tatsuya Higashi・Takeshi Serizawa (Daihatsu Motor)・Wataru Kitagawa・Takaharu Takeshita (Nagoya Institute of Technology)・Mikito Kawamura・Junichi Asama (Shizuoka University)

This study explores the potential of adopting the Synchronous Reluctance Motor (SynRM) as a high-efficiency Bio power generator system source. It emphasizes the cost-effectiveness of SynRM in production compared to the interior permanent magnet motor, highlighting its affordability. The absence of magnets in SynRM enhances maintenance feasibility, making it an attractive option for long-term sustainability. The research aims to establish SynRM as a reliable and economically viable solution for power generation systems, showcasing its efficiency and reduced environmental impact. The investigation includes detailed analyses of design, cost considerations, and maintenance feasibility, providing insights into the promising role of SynRM in advancing power generation technology.

  • Session No.29 Social Change and Next Generation Mobility II (OS)
  • May 22Room G416+G41712:35-13:50
  • Chair: Takahiro Suzuki (Reitaku University)
Mobility-Society Committee
Yoshihiro Suda (The University of Tokyo), Takahiro Suzuki (Reitaku University), Takashi Kobayashi (NALTEC), Toshiyuki Sugimachi (Tokyo City University)
No. Title・Author (Affiliation)

Logged Data and Simulation Exploitation for ADAS Validation

Son Tong・Balakrishnan Ayyanar・Kohei Noma・Reiji Takeuchi・Theo Geluk・Daisuke Nagahata (Siemens Digital Industries Software)

Recently, the ADAS industry focuses on scenario-based approach with V&V development cycle (MiL-HiL-real vehicle) for safety validation. In this work, we present our ADAS scenario-based testing process with focus on how to reconstruct and adapt virtual test cases via exploiting real logged vehicle sensors data. The adaptation process helps to make the scenario more realistic and close the gap between virtual and real test cases. In addition, a procedure to reduce the number of scenarios while moving from MiL to HiL and real vehicle testing using transfer learning technologies will also be discussed. Several ADAS use cases will be demonstrated.


Navigating the Global Evolution of Autonomous Mobile Robots in Public Areas

Tim Brockmeyer・Rolf Adomat・Sebastian L. Weiss・Stephan Cieler (Continental Automotive Technologies)・Hatef Tahvildari・Yuanrun Teng (Continental Automotive)

The global adoption of Autonomous Mobile Robots (AMRs) into public spaces presents unique challenges, facing inconsistent regulations in various regions. Moreover, multiple standards complicate integration and interoperability. We'll explore how regulatory frameworks for AMRs compare with those from automated driving, and the implications for industry players. We propose a structured approach to categorize AMR and their deployment strategies, to ensure safe and publicly accepted operation. A concrete example of interaction with humans will illustrate the need for standardization and explain how the proposed approach effectively structures the world of robotics, providing guidance and adaptability to local regulations.


Path Planning for Ultra-Compact Mobility Based on Pedestrian Sensitivity and Risk Potential Models

Toshiyuki Sugimachi・Kotaro Nishihata・Yuichi Sueshige・Hideo Miyachi・Toshiaki Sakurai・Tetsuo Maki (Tokyo City University)・Yoshihiro Suda (The University of Tokyo)

In recent years, area management of new road spaces in which ultra-compact mobility and pedestrians coexist has been considered. It is required that ultra-compact mobility and pedestrians cooperate in the same space where they coexist. In this study, we propose a method to generate the cooperative trajectory based on a pedestrian sensitivity model and a risk potential model with respect to the relative distance between the ultra-compact mobility and pedestrians, and evaluate its effectiveness by simulation experiments.

  • Session No.30 Fundamental Technology for Safety
  • May 22Room G418+G4199:30-11:10
  • Chair: Sota Yamamoto (Shibaura Institute of Technology)
No. Title・Author (Affiliation)

A Study on Rear Bumper Back Beam for Modular Architecture
-Developed by Dividing into Platform Fixed Module and Design Change Module-

Hongheui Lee (Hyundai Motor)

Architectural development system is a shift from the existing platform development system to the module development strategy. The module development strategy focuses on the common development capability of the platform to secure the basic performance and quality of the vehicle. The main concept is to maximize the effect of commonization by developing minimum variable parts that require separate development around fixed parts. The rear bumper back beam is one of the external system parts. It was selected as a part with high design freedom, and a modular design was performed to satisfy collision performance regulations and marketability.


UN Regulation No. 155 on Vehicle Cyber-Security. Technical Service Perspective and Challenges

Oriol Flix Viñas・Carlos Lujan Tutusaus・Andrés Aranda Martínez (Applus+ IDIADA)

Technical Services for Type-Approval have suffered a deep transformation in the last few years to be able to deal with the new regulatory challenges, especially those linked to UN Regulation N. 155. IDIADA has been involved from the very first steps of the drafting process and is currently one of the Technical Services with a highest level of activity in this
field. Thus, the testimony of IDIADA represents a wide spectrum of the challenges encountered by the different stakeholders during the implementation of UN Regulation N.155


Enhanced Material Model for Composite Crash Performance at Ply Level
-*MAT_262 Evolution-

Alfredo Alameda・Alejandro Dominguez・Eduardo Martin-Santos (Applus+ IDIADA)・Tomohiko Max Miura (TOYOTA GAZOO Racing Europe)

Structural crash performance of lightweight composite structures is driven mainly by fracture propagation. Thus, an accurate prediction considering relevant mechanisms during failure onset and propagation is mandatory. LS-DYNA *MAT_262 and *MAT_058 laws are used for crash simulation of continuum FRPs at ply-level.
Comparing CAE and testing, predictivity of both laws is insufficient when a combination of crushing and bending is dominant, resulting in compromised prediction level between these mechanisms.
In this paper, limitations in *MAT_262 are identified and enhancements are developed to expand its current capabilities and achieve better predictivity using a single material card for bending-crushing driven load cases.


Development of Technology for Predicting Fracture of Point Joints during Collision

Yoko Okawa・Shota Chinzei (Kobe Steel)

The fracture of welds in a vehicle collision may cause a significant deterioration of occupant protection performance. Therefore, it is very important to predict the risk of fracture at the design stage and design a structure that can avoid fracture. In this study, a fracture prediction model that can consider the effects of plate thickness and nugget diameter on fracture strength was realized by improving a generic analytical model. It was confirmed that good fracture prediction accuracy was obtained.

  • Session No.31 Intelligent Safety Vehicle I
  • May 22Room G418+G41912:10-14:15
  • Chair: Kazumasa Kato (Magna International Japan)
No. Title・Author (Affiliation)

A Study on the Experimental Evaluation of Electric Vehicle Charging Door Heating Module using Composite Material

Gyuho Shim・Jongheon Lee・Cheoljin Park Park・Teawon Kim・Jaegeun Kim (SECO ECOPLASTIC)・Geonhee Cheon (SECO SEOJIN)

In this study, in order to improve the problem of charging doors freezing, multi-walled carbon nanotube (CNT, Carbon Nano Tube) material, a low-power heating element that reduces power consumption by more than 10% compared to existing heating elements, was applied to electric vehicle charging doors to developed an electric vehicle charging door heating module that suppresses current and prevents burns by rapidly increasing resistance. In addition, to evaluate the performance of the developed charging door heating module, an evaluation device was developed and the opening/closing and heating performance according to temperature were evaluated. Through evaluation of the developed heating element, it will be applicable not only to the charging door but also to electric vehicle interior parts such as handles, seat heaters, door trims, and center consoles, which are parts where heating elements can be applied.


Development of Mass-Production Technology for Moving Consoles to Create Various Convenience Spaces in Vehicle Interiors

Dongjin Park・Jongheon Lee・Heaju Park (SECO ECOPLASTIC)

In this study, we will deal with the implementation of the operation method of the upper button part of the sliding moving console and the smooth transmission of driving force to the locking device at the bottom of the console, which is configured far from the button control panel. The sliding console configuration is a button that unlocks the rail locking, and the control is located on top of the console to increase the visibility and operability of the vehicle occupants.
The part of the lever that slids the console is located at the bottom of the console, so the distance between the rail control panel and the rail unit is large. The embodiment for smooth operation may vary depending on the configuration of the knob, its internal structure and the method of operation.


Type-Approval Requirements for ADS in Europe

Andrés Aranda Martínez・Carlos Lujan Tutusaus・Oriol Flix Viñas (Applus+ IDIADA)

Safe introduction of automated driving is one of the main challenges that the automotive industry has ever faced. Not only because of the technology involved, also because of new validation methods that need to be defined to cover a whole new reality.
This validation is not limited to the procedures of the manufacturers to provide a safe product, also to the official type-approval. Type-approval procedure is not just a technical evaluation, it requires legal considerations. Thus, special attention shall be made to such evaluation, to guarantee transparency and a clear ruleset for the stakeholders taking part in the process.


Scenario Categories for Autonomous Baggage Transport at Amsterdam Schiphol Airport
-A Practical Implementation of TNO's StreetWise Scenario-Based Methodology-

Olaf Op Den Camp・Erwin De Gelder・Abhiskek Kalose・Saarang Gaggar (TNO)

According to recent regulations, manufacturers of Autonomous Vehicles (AVs) have to assure the safety of their AVs, before the vehicle authorities can allow the deployment of such vehicles onto the road. UNECE WP29 proposes a scenario-based safety assurance framework to guide this process. TNO StreetWise approach for identifying and characterizing scenarios to get a structured and statistically well-founded view on traffic and behaviour of road users, is fully in line with this framework. This paper shows how StreetWise is also used for a rigorous safety assessment of Autonomous Baggage Transport between aircraft stands and baggage handling area at Schiphol Airport.


Visualization of Scenario-Based Risk Quantification of Automated Driving Systems

Erwin De Gelder・Olaf Op Den Camp・Sytze Kalisvaart (TNO)・Hannes Schneider (AVL)

Before the introduction and deployment of an automated driving system, it is important to ensure that safety has not been compromised. A data-driven, scenario-based assessment is widely supported as a constituent for determining that the risk is acceptable. This work shows how visualization can help to identify what parts of the scenario space contributes most to the overall risk, where risk is a combination of exposure and severity. We also illustrate how to quantify the confidence in the estimated risk. This work helps developers to identify how to improve their system to improve its safety.

  • Session No.32 Automotive Security Technology (OS)
  • May 22Room G418+G41914:55-17:00
  • Chair: Yoshiaki Ishizuka (Marelli)
With the publication of ISO/SAE 21434, it has become essential to strengthen the cybersecurity of automobiles. In this session, we will broadly discuss research and best practices regarding attack, defense, and evaluation techniques related to automobile security.
Cybersecurity Courses Organizing Committee
Makoto Kayashima (Hitachi), Masahiro Aoyama (Nissan Motor), Masaru Ooe (SUBARU), Yoshiaki Ishizuka (Marelli)
No. Title・Author (Affiliation)

Encrypted Control Technology for Concealing Communications and Controls as a Cybersecurity Countermeasure

Takaharu Yamada (dSPACE Japan)・Kiminao Kogiso (The University of Electro-Communications)

This study constructs an encrypted speed control system involving an automobile fuel consumption model on a dSPACE Real-Time Processor. It demonstrates the effectiveness of our developed Matlab/Simulink encrypted PID control block and the real-time detection of replay attacks.


Cybersecurity Assessment in Controller Area Network Architectures

Adrian Fernandez (Applus+ IDIADA)

Cybersecurity attacks on vehicles are currently a real threat to the safety of road users, regarding both their physical safety and their data privacy. Furthermore, cybersecurity is a "hidden" quality of a vehicle, and only perceived by the user after an event has occurred. Applus IDIADA has developed a methodology to deploy a cybersecurity assessment service capable of evaluating the cybersecurity of a vehicle. This paper presents the solution to evaluate the vehicle cybersecurity related to the widely used CAN network, and the impact it can have on a vehicle when the cybersecurity of the CAN is not guaranteed.


Cybersecurity Assessment of the Charging Process between Vehicle and Charging Point

Miguel Martínez Montoya (IDIADA Automotive Technology)

Electricity and the automotive industry have always been intrinsically linked. Such is the fact that today the automotive industry future is dependent on the capacity to store electricity in vehicles. Electric vehicles bring us the opportunity to develop an efficient and zero emission way of transport. As an antagonist, the hasty change in the automotive environment, leads to flaws and misconfigurations in the electric vehicle environment which can be exploited by attackers. The following paper addresses this problem and is focused on the cybersecurity vulnerabilities of the charging process related to the vehicle and the power supply equipment.


Automotive Cybersecurity Assessment

Manel Rodriguez-Recasens (Applus+ IDIADA)

The safety tests are a need in the automotive industry. EuroNCAP is the reference entity of these kind of tests in Europe and have been evolving along the years to cover all the safety key points. Cybersecurity threats in the automotive industry are a hot topic and it is important to evaluate the cybersecurity level of each vehicle. An example of this importance is the new R155 and ISO21434. Applus IDIADA is part of an EuroNCAP working group and has been growing its capabilities and preparing the field to be able to perform a cybersecurity assessment of each vehicle interface.


Post-Quantum Cryptography on Embedded ECUs

Philipp Jungklass・Claude-Pascal Stoeber-Schmidt・Randolf Barg・Henrik Hansen・Marco Siebert (IAV)

With the wide availability of quantum computers in the coming years, existing cryptographic algorithms will no longer offer the necessary security. For this reason, the NIST started back in 2017 to select procedures that can also offer the necessary security in the age of quantum computers. Due to the multi-stage, time-consuming selection process, the manufacturers of various microcontroller and microprocessor families were no longer able to integrate the necessary hardware support into the current generations, which makes implementation in software mandatory. For this reason, this presentation will introduce an open-source library called quantumSAR, which implements most of the current candidates of the NIST standardisation process in such a way that it can be executed in a platform-independent and AUTOSAR-compliant manner, even on low-performance embedded systems.

  • Session No.33 The Latest Noise, Vibration and Sound Technology IV (OS)
  • May 23Room G301+G3029:30-11:10
  • Chair: Hirotaka Shiozaki (Mitsubishi Motors)
Noise & Vibration Committee, Sound Quality Evaluation Engineering Committee
Masashi Komada (Toyota Motor), Takashi Kondo (Honda R&D), Masayuki Ishizuka (Siemens), Takeshi Toi (Chuo University)
No. Title・Author (Affiliation)

Fundamental Study for 6 DOF Contribution Analysis in Operation Employing Virtual Point

Junji Yoshida・Kenta Hara (Osaka Institute of Technology)

Virtual point is a method for estimating vibration where direct measurement is hard. Blocked force can also be estimated by the method. On the other hand, the method is applicable at a frequency band where the target structure vibrates rigidly. In this study, we considered a combined method of virtual point and operational TPA to estimate the force contribution at wide frequency band. In the method, the blocked force at a virtual point was estimated and the transfer function to the response point was calculated using the blocked force and the vibration in operation.


Breakdown of Elements and Optimization with Model Based Development (MBD)
-To Manage both Environmental Performance and Body Vibration of Cars-

Hidefumi Muranaka・Ryo Takahashi・Toshihiro Hayashi・Daisuke Tsukahara・Kiyofumi Sato・Tatsuya Okuno・Hajime Ooba (SUBARU)

Aiming at the harmony with the global environment, if the catalyst is warmed up early for exhaust gas cleaner, the vibration of the car body gets worse, and we took a lot of person-hours for these performance coexistence in the past. Therefore, about car body vibration during catalyst warm-up, we created physical models of the exciting force and the sensitivity of the vehicle body and verified them with the actual device to analyze factors. In addition, we achieved the optimization of development by constructing the comprehensive MBD from combustion waveforms to vehicle body vibrations.


A Finite Element-Poroelastic Element Direct Frequency Approach to Vibro-Acoustic Simulation in Fully Trimmed Car Models

Willem Van Hal・Kamel Amichi・Massimiliano Calloni (ESI)

Vibro-acoustic simulation in the automotive industry is crucial for enhancing the driving experience in terms of comfort and safety, while also assessing manufacturers in meeting regulatory standards and improving design process efficiency. In the context of cabin noise, it enables engineers to assess and refine interior acoustics during the early stages of vehicle design, facilitating informed decisions about materials, components, and design elements. This paper introduces a finite element - poroelastic element direct frequency approach for cabin noise simulation, leveraging a geometric/hybrid solution that scales efficiently on inexpensive hardware , applied to a fully trimmed car model.


Pressure Pulsation Prediction Model for Control Brake Actuator with Compound Pipeline

Yohei Koike・Masashi Komada (Toyota Motor)・Masahiro Yano・Nobuhiko Yoshioka (Advics)

For a brake system in which the pressure of the left and right wheels is controlled by a single pump in a brake actuator, the actuator model was constructed by identifying the transfer function of valves without mathematical model inside the actuator using the 4 pressures/2 systems method, and together with the transfer function of internal oil channels composed of compound pipeline. The model was validated by measuring the pressure pulsation at the actuator outlet.

  • Session No.34 The Latest Noise, Vibration and Sound Technology V (OS)
  • May 23Room G301+G30212:10-14:15
  • Chair: Michiaki Sekine (NALTEC)
Noise & Vibration Committee, Sound Quality Evaluation Engineering Committee
Masashi Komada (Toyota Motor), Takashi Kondo (Honda R&D), Masayuki Ishizuka (Siemens), Takeshi Toi (Chuo University)
No. Title・Author (Affiliation)

A Study on the Cause and Improvement of Hood Rattle
-Cause and Improvement of Hood Rattle-

Eunmin Kim・InSun Baik・HooSang Part・SangIl Lee・JongWook Moon (Hyundai Motor)

Hood rattle of the causes of hood noise, and we are trying to understand the principle of rattle and improve it.


Study of Effective Interior Noise Reduction using Detailed Door Model Analysis Technology Development to Visualize Noise Transfer Flow by HSEA

Norihisa Nakajima・Ichiro Fukumoto (Kasai Kogyo)・Shinichi Kokabu (K and A JPN)

Demanding improvement in cabin quietness is essential to achieve a comfortable interior for electric vehicles (EVs). However, it may lead to an increase in mass, so effective noise reduction is required. In this report, we study effective noise reduction methods by developing a detailed door model to visualize the flow of noise transfer from the vehicle's exterior to the interior.


Control Technology of Car Quality by Driving Sound: Evaluation of Car Quality using Sound Texture Models

Yuki Nakatani・Tetsunori Hada・Naoko Yorozu・Takaya Katsuragawa・Masayuki Watanabe (Mazda)

We constructed a car quality evaluation model using sound texture statistics which are amplitude modulation features, based on auditory functions. We tested this model on driving sounds measured at constant speeds, and found that it evaluated the quality of a car more accurately than conventional psychoacoustic features.


Control Technology of Car Quality by Driving Sound: Improved by Controlling the Modulation Transfer Characteristics of the Vehicle Body

Tetsunori Hada・Yuki Nakatani・Naoko Yorozu (Mazda)

It is critical to develop an amplitude modulation control technology that supports the car quality evaluation model suggested in previous presentation. We found that modulation transfer characteristics of radiation and transmission sound through the vehicle body, could be explained by the modulation transfer function used as an index of speech intelligibility. Furthermore, we also found that car quality could be improved by controlling the modulation transfer characteristics of the vehicle body.


Analysis of Disc-Brake Squeal Considering Lining Wear (Part 2)

Tokunosuke Ikegami・Katsuhiro Uchiyama・Yoshiyuki Yamaguchi (Nisshinbo Brake)

In our previous report, we conducted brake squeal analysis (complex eigenvalue analysis) considering the lining wear, and we showed visualization of wear pattern and good correlation with experimental results for both wear pattern and squeal. In this report, we perform parametric study of brake pad and propose countermeasure against out-of-plane brake squeal and in-plane brake squeal.

  • Session No.35 The New Technology for the Drivetrain Systems I (OS)
  • May 23Room G3039:30-11:35
  • Chair: Kazuya Arakawa (Toyota Motor)
To provide place and opportunity of meeting each other and technical discussion by gathering topics of the latest drivetrain technology from fundamental technology to new unit and systems.
Drivetrain Committee, CVT - Hybrid Engineering Committee
Kazuya Arakawa (Toyata Motor), Hiroko Yamashita (SUBARU), Hideki Yoshikawa (Mitsubishi Fuso Truck and Bus), Keiji Sato (Transmission Research Association for Mobility innovation), Tomokazu Nakazawa (Gentherm), Kento Aihara (Housei University)
No. Title・Author (Affiliation)

A Study on High Rotational Speed Traction Drive
-Measurement and Improvement of Traction Coefficient Up to 50,000 rpm-

Yuechen Jia・Takeshi Yamamoto・Itsuki Maehira・So Kokubo (Tokai University)

A high-speed traction drive test machine was manufactured, and performance up to 50,000 rpm was measured. And a model was constructed to accurately predict the traction coefficient, and a texture was created that significantly improved performance. The effects of increasing the reduction ratio were also experimentally confirmed.


Study of the Cooling Effect on the Roller Surface by Increasing the Oil Feed Rate in a High Peripheral Speed Traction Drive and its Cooling Modeling by Thermo-Fluid Analysis

Shunki Boku・Yuki Kawamoto・Katsuyoshi Sato・Masayuki Ochiai (Tokai University)

In recent years, the traction drive has been identified as a potential power transmission mechanism for electric vehicles. However, one issue with traction drives is that the traction coefficient decreases as the roller surface temperature rises, which may impair the transmission capacity. It is important to address this concern.
This study conducted temperature measurement experiments for different oil supply rates and found that an increase in oil quantity does not contribute to cooling effectiveness.
Furthermore, a thermal fluid analysis model was tried to calculate the roller surface temperature.


Development of Magnetostrictive Torque Sensor System
-Development of Compact Torque Sensor System Capable of Mounting in Vehicle Powertrain-

Kimiko Nakai・Kota Fukuda・Satoshi Oyama (NSK)

This paper reports on the magnetostrictive torque sensor system mountable in the powertrain. With a compact and robust structure for powertrain applications, the developed torque sensor system offers superior mountability. The sensor demonstrated accurate torque measurements for ±1 000 Nm of torque input on a shaft with an outer diameter of 40 mm within a 4% error.


Development of Insulation Bearing in Motor Support Bearing Application (First Report)

Voelkel Franz・Brehm Daniel・Kuhn Lukas (Schaeffler Technologies)・Seiya Nishizawa (Schaeffler Japan)

BEVs with high voltage inverters are getting bigger market share in the future.
With this trend, the risk of the damage on the motor bearings rooted from parasitic current going through the inside of the motor units are getting more critical. with that problem, the simulation approach and test methods are developed and practical and cost-effective solution of insulation bearing are proposed.


Elucidating the Mechanism of Hydraulic Noise using CFD

Masaru Shimada (JATCO Engineering)

Hydraulic system noise was often solved by trial and error in experiments. To solve it, CFD that reproduce the regulating pressure behavior of valves was conducted and analyzed the flow field in detail. The results revealed the mechanism, air in the oil expands and compresses in the circuit to generate noise, which is difficult to elucidate experimentally. In this report, the details of mechanism and countermeasures will be presented.

  • Session No.36 The New Technology for the Drivetrain Systems II (OS)
  • May 23Room G30312:35-14:40
  • Chair: Tatsuhito Aihara (Hosei University)
To provide place and opportunity of meeting each other and technical discussion by gathering topics of the latest drivetrain technology from fundamental technology to new unit and systems.
Drivetrain Committee, CVT - Hybrid Engineering Committee
Kazuya Arakawa (Toyata Motor), Hiroko Yamashita (SUBARU), Hideki Yoshikawa (Mitsubishi Fuso Truck and Bus), Keiji Sato (Transmission Research Association for Mobility innovation), Tomokazu Nakazawa (Gentherm), Kento Aihara (Housei University)
No. Title・Author (Affiliation)

Investigation of Factors of Shifting Speed during Up/Down of Metal V-Belt Type CVT under No-Loading Condition

Yuichirou Mori・Kazuya Okubo・Kiyotaka Obunai (Doshisha University)

This paper shows an experimental study of the factors that change the shifting speed of a metal V-belt type CVT. The shifting speed was defined as the radial displacement divided by the tangential displacement of the belt in the pulley groove. Test results shows that the shifting speed was determined by the change of contacting position of the belt element. The change in ring tension was also contributed to change the shifting speed in case of speed up.


A Practical Prediction Method for Oil Delivery Distribution by Shaft Center Lubrication

Takafumi Kawamura (Computational Fluid Dynamics Consulting)・Takuma Kato (Chiba Institute of Technology)

A practical method for predicting the oil flow rate from multiple hole rows for oil delivery through a rotating shaft was investigated. A theoretical solution for the oil film thickness inside the shaft was obtained and its validity was confirmed by comparison with CFD calculations and experiments.


On the Gas-Liquid Two-Phase Flows Driven by a Simple Rotating Body

Kazuyasu Sugiyama (Osaka University)・Tomoaki Watamura (The University of Tokyo)

Experimental and numerical studies will be presented on gas-liquid two-phase flows driven by a simple rotating body. The global dependence of the flow pattern and the torque on rotational speed is arranged in a unified manner using a dimensionless number. Further, in consideration of the local distributions of oil and stress, the fundamental mechanisms that would make CFD prediction better are discussed,


Comparison of Various Computational Methods for Gear Stirring

Takafumi Kawamura (Computational Fluid Dynamics Consulting)・Tomoaki Watamura (University of Tokyo)・Kazuyasu Sugiyama (Osaka University)・Masaru Shimada (JATCO Engineering)・Tadashi Yamada (Toyota Motor)・Masanori Kato (Honda R & D)・Daiki Saegusa (Honda Motor)・Akira Nakashima (Mazda)

Experiments and numerical computations using various computational methods including particle methods, lattice Boltzmann method, finite difference method, and finite volume methods were carried out, and accuracy of these computational methods for gear stirring problem were assessed.


Development of Powertrain Unit Equipped with Transmission for Small BEVs

Misaki Minoha・Maki Hashimoto・Ryoichi Imai・Yutaka Kimoto・Kazutoshi Nakayama・Shinya Oomori (Exedy)

In the field of BEV, achieving desirable performance is possible by adopting a motor with sufficient output. However, for small mobility vehicles, the combination of a motor and transmission is considered effective due to various constraints. This presentation introduces a power unit that combines two types of simple-structured transmissions with a motor, catering to the specific needs of small mobility applications.

  • Session No.37 The Latest Technology Trends in Automotive Energy (OS)
  • May 23Room G3049:30-11:10
  • Chair: Hikari Todoroki (KPMG Consulting)
Energy Commiittee
So Hirano (Seijio University), Takashi Kaneko (ENEOS)
No. Title・Author (Affiliation)

The Estimation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Hydrogen, Synthetic Fuels and Biofuels Considering Well-to-Wheel in Japan

Ryo Tominaga・Ren Takasuga・Shoi Koshikawa・Eriko Matsumura・Jiro Senda (Doshisha University)

As means to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the transportation sector, carbon-neutral (CN) fuels such as hydrogen, synthetic fuels and biofuels are considered. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the GHG emissions of CN fuels considering Well-to-Wheel in Japan. This report presents the calculated and compared results for the fuels.


Tailored Cooling and Charge Motion Concept for Spark Ignited Hydrogen Combustion Engine to Achieve Highest Efficiency and Power Density

Lukas Virnich・Dieter Van Der Put (FEV)・Tsuyoshi Horiba (FEV Japan)

Within the development of H2 ICE the occurrence of uncontrolled combustion phenomena (pre-ignition and knocking) is the limiting factor for the performance of hydrogen engines. In this context, the homogeneity of the air/fuel mixture, the avoidance of hot zones in the combustion chamber, the appropriate layout of the ignition system and the lubrication oil formulation are decisive factors for avoiding combustion problems. Therefore, FEV has tailored the existing cooling system for a heavy-duty cylinder head for a hydrogen ICE with direct injection (DI) to ensure efficient and precise cooling of the combustion chamber in combination with an optimized port design.


Future Truck 2030+
-A Modular Software System Concept for Commercial Vehicle Applications-

Hubertus Ulmer・Joerg Mickeleit・Robert Mollik・Chris-Kilian Mueller・Thaddaeus Delebinski (IAV)

The automotive industry is changing. Especially BEV propulsion systems are emerging, while hydrogen or alternative fuel solutions are still niche applications. Worldwide, the change drives as well as the legal and infrastructure requirements are different. Therefore, a modular approach is necessary for finding tailored propulsion systems that fit to individual markets.
The proposed paper will show IAVs view on the market situations EU and JP to 2030 and beyond. A holistic model-based system simulation shows, which propulsion systems fit best for future truck applications in EU and JP. And IAVs modular, scalable propulsion system architecture for a major truck application.


Aerodynamic Design of Commercial Vehicles
-A Lever for Reducing Carbon Emissions and Increasing Operation Range-

Hubertus Ulmer・Stefan Reetz・Armando Estrada・Thaddaeus Delebinski (IAV)

The automotive industry is facing a demand for lowering CO2 emission. For Commercial Vehicles, the drivers are not solely legislation, but also fleet operators in terms of Total Cost of Ownership. Especially for ZEVs, an increase of operation range is important.
The proposed paper will show IAVs Future Truck model. A long-haul truck application that meets 2030 and beyond requirements for a modern, aerodynamic optimized truck design. The design was found, using experimental results from wind tunnel and on-road tests as well as initial CFD calculations. The paper will demonstrate, how aerodynamic measures lead a to corresponding CO2 reduction.

  • Session No.9 Thermal and Fluid Engineering for Carbon Neutral Society -Cabin Environmental Technology that Balances Thermal Comfort, Air Quality and Efficiency- (OS)
  • May 23Room G30412:10-13:50
  • Chair: Koichiro Iwai (Toyota Central R&D Labs.)
For the realization of well-to-wheel carbon neutrality, the latest research and development of thermal and fluid technologies that support the realization of extra-low-carbon mobility will be presented and discussed to promote global exchange of engineers and to improve mutual technological capabilities.
Vehicle Interior Environment Technical Committee, CFD (Computational Fuid Dynamics) Committee, Vehicle Aerodynamics Committee, Thermal Management Engineering Committee
Yuzuru Yoshinami (Nissan Motor), Minoru Inoue (Mazda Motor), Yoshiichi Ozeki (AGC), Takako Fukazawa (Kyoto University of Education), Kohei Rokushima (DENSO), Kouichirou Iwai (Toyota Central R&D Labs.)
No. Title・Author (Affiliation)

Development of Antifogging Window Technology to Reduce Air Conditioning Energy Consumption for Battery Electric Vehicles

Daiji Katsura・Tetsuya Maeda・Hiroaki Masuoka・Hiroto Matsui・Hiroya Ochiai・Tetsuya Sugimoto (Mazda)

Antifogging windows coated with water-absorbent resin can improve the cruising range and relative humidity in the cabin during winter without compromising space efficiency. In this study, we developed an antifogging window that combines water absorbency and durability, and a calculation model to derive the effect of the window on cruising range improvement. By using the model, we evaluated the effect of the improvement in cruising range in various regions of the world.


Development of Glass Heat Sensation Index Considering Short and Long Wave Radiation Wavelength Characteristics

Yoshiichi Ozeki・Miyoko Oiwake・Reika Miura・Shinya Tanaka (AGC)・Akihisa Nomoto (University of California)・Yuyuko Watanabe・Hikari Ryuuzaki・Shin-Ichi Tanabe (Waseda University)

A new index 'heat sensation index' indicating the heat sensitivity from the glass is proposed. The heat sensation index is calculated by taking into account both the spectral transmission and emission characteristics of the glass and the spectral transmission and absorption characteristics of the skin in relation to the solar radiation reaching the outer surface of the glass. In a climate laboratory conducting on an actual vehicle equipped with various types of glass, the heat sensation index showed a higher correlation more than the total solar radiation transmission Tts to the thermal sensation vote.


Refrigerant Permeability Evaluation of Low GWP Refrigerant R-474A

Shohei Ajioka・Yasutaka Negishi・Tsubasa Nakaue・Kentaro Shibata・Daisuke Karube (Daikin Industries)

As vehicles become more electrically powered, HP systems are being adopted, and refrigerants with low GWP are being considered to address global warming.
Daikin has newly developed R-474A, a mixed refrigerant with a GWP of less than 1, to solve both problems. R-474A contains the new substance R-1132(E), which raises concerns about refrigerant permeation. Therefore, the refrigerant permeability from the refrigerant hose of R-474A was examined, and the examination result is reported.


Development of Fuel Economy Prediction Method of Vehicle Installed with Turbo Charger Based on Public Specification
-Cruising Simulation with Searching of Balance Points of Gas Flowrate and Power-

Hideaki Nagano・Shota Morisaki・Itsuhei Kohri (Tokyo City University)・Yoshiichi Ozeki・Miyoko Oiwake (AGC)・Suguru Shiratori・Kenjiro Shimano (Tokyo City University)

This paper proposes a zero-dimensional model that can quantitatively analyze the effects of turbocharger recovery for predicting fuel consumption and cruising range of engine vehicles. Based on the performance of both the compressor and turbine estimated from the published specifications through similarity law of turbomachinery, the gas state in each process is estimated, and each balance point of mass flow and power is searched and determined through iterative calculation. The results clarified the operating point and the fuel consumption along with the driving status.

  • Session No.39 Vehicle Development I
  • May 23Room G314+G3159:30-11:35
  • Chair: Tetsuo Maki (Tokyo City University)
No. Title・Author (Affiliation)

A Study on the Low Friction Method of U-joint in R-MDPS System
-A Study to Reduce the Steering Friction Considering Actual Vehicle Conditions-

Jong Min Kim・Tae Kyun Kim・Yoo Sin Kang・Hyung Seok Kim・Ho Young Kim (Hyundai Motor)・Jeong Ho Kuk・Jae Young Noh (Namyang Nexmo)

Many studies for steering u-joint have been conducted to improve torque fluctuation, NVH, strength, etc. However, the friction of U-joint was known to be insignificant, and there was little research on this. This paper newly redefines the U-joint friction effect in the R-MDPS system, It also introduces the friction phenomenon that increases when fastening with other parts. To reduce such friction, the method of optimizing the shape when fastening the bolt is studied using FEA and reviewed the optimal specifications of parts. Finally the steering feeling of the vehicle is improved, so that a big step can be taken.


Vehicle Concept Model Optimization using Skeletonization Algorithm

Hongkyoung Seong (Hyundai Motor)

In order to explore various concepts at early developing stage, vehicle concept models should be fast and adaptable to approve validity of vehicle structures. Rather than detailed and sophisticated 2D shell based Finite Element models, a simple 1D beam structure is suitable for the concept model to deal with rapid changes in the early stage. However, quality and consistency of the concept modeling are highly dependent on operators since the work is done manually. To overcome this dependency, this study suggests the skeletonization algorithm which extracts feature lines from FE models to make 1D beam structure. Furthermore, the concept model optimization is conducted by connecting skeleton structure and cross-section properties.


A Study of Space Structure Node Joint and Interlocking Connection for Micro Factory

Do Hoi Kim・Sung Woo Kim (Hyundai Motor)・Dong Ho Kang・Bahman Morefi (Hyundai Motor Europe Technicla Center)

In this paper, high-strength and rigid body nodes were studied that can replace the steel monocoque and die casting that can be produced in the micro smart factory. The new joint combines the GFRP and AL extrusion structure with tubular steel. The innovative structure can be assembled by bolt and adhesive with the existing body platform while maintaining high-strength and rigidity performance. It is equivalent to the rigidity of die casting and has a cost of 1/3 level of economic type. In addition, A several of interlocking node solution structures also were invented with various ideas to minimize the number of bolts on the body and assembled. the final prototype of the new concept succesfully was tested for assembly.


A Study on Plastic Hybrid Door System for Various Specifications

Je Won Choi・Sang Young Im・Jang Hoo Kim (Hyundai Motor)

Future mobility is likely to have multiple specifications rather than simply one specification for one model by the diverse needs of consumers and there will be a problem of increasing investment cost and development period. To respond to the multi-product and small-volume production system, the new hybrid door system was studied. It is a new paradigm concept that applies a mixture of plastic materials to the existing steel material-based system. Through various analyzes of the TRIZ technique, new ideas for changing and integrating the system structure were derived, and unexpected problems were resolved and verified.


Develop One Surface Frameless Flush Door
-Watertight Resistant Frameless Door-

Hyeong Geun Jo・Kyung Doek Seo・Sang Il Lee・Young Uk Yoon・Dong Min Jeon・Dae Chul Kim・You Chan Park・Hoo Sang Park・In Sun Baik (Hyundai Motor)

Describes a frameless door that is perfect for watertightness and wind noise and glass up and down noise performance. Especially explain how the watertightness performance, which is the weakness of frameless doors, was satisfied. Based on this academic thesis, it can be used as a reference for designing a frameless door that satisfies both appearance and performance.

  • Session No.40 Vehicle Development II
  • May 23Room G314+G31512:35-14:15
  • Chair: Daisuke Ito (Kansai University)
No. Title・Author (Affiliation)

Study of HILS Development for Vehicle Automation Test using Robots, Motors

Hojin Jy・Soyun Lee・Dan Kim (Hyundai AutoEver)

Since automatic control of some switches is required to perform testing of vehicle ECUs, this paper introduce a case of HILS construction using robots.
NFC tagging for digital keys such as mobile phones or card keys is required to perform automation testing of digital key functions for vehicle entry/start.
In order to build an HILS environment, it is necessary to tag a real digital key to a door handle or a wireless charger, and at this time, HILS can be built using a collaborative robot.
In addition, this paper covers case of HILS construction applied to vehicle remote key input control and multifunction switch control.


Study of HILS Test using CAN Log Data from Vehicle

JunKu Lee・DaWon Jung・Jieun Whang (Hyundai AutoEver)

In order to build an e-LSD HILS environment, the actual load of the vehicle is required.

This paper introduces a case of HILS construction using a load simulation test bench.


Development of Seat Comfort Evaluation Based on Virtual Human Models

Baekhee Lee (Hyundai Motor)・Byoung-Keon Daniel Park (University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute)

This study focuses on developing a digitalization technique for seat comfort evaluation using virtual human models. Traditional seat comfort evaluations have relied on direct user surveys, but with the advancement of virtual evaluation techniques, digitalization offers improved efficiency and accuracy. The study introduces methods such as seat fitting sentiment prediction and virtual body pressure-based comfort prediction. By utilizing machine learning and virtual simulations, the system achieves high predictive accuracy for seat comfort. Additionally, the study presents a comprehensive system that allows for efficient evaluation of multiple seats and human models. This research contributes to the field of seat comfort evaluation by enhancing digitalization and providing more precise and efficient assessments.


Evaluation Study on the Optimal Implementation Conditions of Indoor Lighting Considering Customer Psychological/Physiological Responses

Daeseon Lee・Cheol Min Park (Hyundai Motor)

With the introduction of autonomous driving, the degree of freedom of indoor drivers in the interior of a car is increasing.Therefore, since indoor customers can engage in various activities such as rest, reading, conversation, and office work, an overall redesign is required.The brightness and color of these light sources have a complex effect on the driver's actions.Currently, there is a lack of research on the effect of color color and brightness change on the driver's psychology/physiology according to the combination of various light sources in the interior space of a car. As the preferred sensibility differs according to the driver's use mode (resting, reading, office work, etc.), it is necessary to understand the effect of the color change and the degree of harmony of the indoor light source on the driver's psychological/physiological factors

  • Session No.41 Wireless Power Transfer Technologies -Static and Dynamic Wireless Power Transfer- (OS)
  • May 23Room G316+G3179:30-12:10
  • Chair: Yukio Yokoi (Takushoku University)
Wireless Power Transfer System Technology Committee
Takehiro Imura (Tokyo University of Science), Jun-ichi Itoh (Nagaoka University of Technology), Keisuke Kusaka (Nagaoka University of Technology), Yoichi Hori (Tokyo University of Science), Yukio Yokoi (Takushoku University), Katsuhiro Hata (The University of Tokyo)
No. Title・Author (Affiliation)

User-Friendly Wireless Charging with Capacitive Coupling in Electric Scooters (First Report)

Shinji Abe・Ryoya Honda・Yuki Aoyagi・Ryuya Kurosawa・Kazuo Matsuno・Minoru Mizutani (Power Wave)

With the proliferation of sharing services, the responsibility for charging electric kick scooters has shifted from users to operators. This presentation will focus on innovative thin, wide-range capacitive coupling wireless charging technology that reduces the charging burden for service providers. We will discuss the potential implications of wireless power for the future of mobility, particularly for electric vehicles (EVs).


Radiated Emission Reduction of Wireless Power Transfer System with Flying Capacitor ARCP Converter

Rintaro Kusui・Keisuke Kusaka・Hiroki Watanabe・Jun-Ichi Itoh (Nagaoka University of Technology)

This paper proposes the wireless power transfer system with flying capacitor axiliary resonant pole converter. The proposed system reduces the radiated emission harmonics by applying the multilevel voltage to the resonator and suppresses the increase of the switching losses.


Proposal of Overhead Reduction for Dynamic Wireless Power Transfer System

Atsuo Hatono (Nippon Institute of Technology)

On power transfer for a moving vehicle, Q-value of receivers is much larger than that of transmitters because of loads. This effect enables us parallel energy transfer by spread spectrum.


Required Battery Capacity of EVs Assuming Optimal Locations of In-Motion Wireless Power Transfer System

Yudai Honma・Daisuke Hasegawa・Katsuhiro Hata・Takashi Oguchi (The University of Tokyo)

In-motion Wireless Power Transfer System (WPTS) is gaining attention as infrastructure to support electric vehicle (EV) mobility. This study assumes optimal locations of WPTSs in urban areas and analyzes battery consumption patterns in EV mobility. By simulating EV charging and discharging patterns while considering acceleration, deceleration, and traffic signals, the study discusses the required battery capacity.


150kW Dynamic Wireless Power Transfer Inverter Control Technology

Jin Katsuya・Shuji Kawano・Kenichiro Takahashi (Honda R&D)

Dynamic wireless charging of electric vehicles (EVs) will significantly extend the range of EVs, thus increasing the potential for electrification of passenger cars. However, ensuring electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) becomes a challenge at high power transfer. In this paper, 150kW dynamic wireless power transfer method is described. The results are evaluated through D-WPT experiment and static EMC experiments.


Report on the Burial of 2023 Years Coils for Dynamic Wireless Power Transfer on Asphalt Roads Equivalent to N6 Traffic Volume

Takehiro Imura・Takahiro Yamahara・Naoya Sasa・Ichitaku Kaku・Yoichi Hori (Tokyo University of Science)・Hiroyuki Mashito・Nagato Abe (Toa Road)

An asphalt road equivalent to N6 traffic volume was constructed on the Noda campus of the Tokyo University of Science. Coils for dynamic wireless power transfer, created in 2023, were buried, tested, and evaluated.
The project has been conducted for three consecutive years since 2021, and this year will be the third year.

  • Session No.42 Automotive Traction Motor Technology (OS)
  • May 23Room G316+G31713:10-14:50
  • Chair: Hideaki Arita (Mitsubishi Electric)
This session focuses on design, theories, analysis and evaluation method of up-to-date automotive traction motor to be beneficial for the actual design. The current status and issues of various technologies are also discussed.
Motor Technology Committee
Kan Akatsu (Yokohama National University), Hideaki Arita (Mitsubishi Electric)
No. Title・Author (Affiliation)

Magnetostriction Effect in Motor Vibration and Acoustic Noise
-Finite Element Analysis and Experimental Investigation-

Yifei Cai・Naoki Saikawa・Akira Chiba (Tokyo Institute of Technology)・Souichiro Yoshizaki (JFE Steel)

The reduction of acoustic noise is one of main concerns in recent traction electric motors for automotive applications. Magnetostriction generates expansion of stator yoke. In this research, toroidal windings are added to stator cores made of three different irons, these are high silicon steel, conventional silicon steel and amorphous iron. Acoustic noise is measured and compared.


Experimental Considerations on Circulating Current Losses of Armature Windings in Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors

Hiroaki Makino・Daisuke Mori・Makoto Matsushita (Toshiba Infrastructure Systems & Solutions)

Parallel strands, which are often used in permanent magnet motors for automobiles, are composed of bundles of electrically parallel-connected small wire, resulting in circulating current losses due to unbalanced inductances caused by the arrangement of wires in the slot. In this paper, the effects of circulating current losses are discussed by experimentally comparing the motor winding losses for a motor with the same wire arrangement in all slots and a motor with the wire arrangement in the slots swapped.


Research on Halbach Array Automotive Permanent Magnet Motor using Laminated Neodymium Magnets

Ryujiro Gombi・Taketsune Nakamura・Emiko Tsuru (Kyoto University)・Tetsuhiko Mizoguchi・Masato Sagawa (NDFEB)・Alberto Castellazzi・Shinichi Domae (Kyoto University of Advanced Science)

We are conducting research on permanent magnet motors for small EVs. The performance required for this motor is high power density at starting and high efficiency during steady running, and we aim to achieve the ultimate in performance by adopting a Halbach array rotor structure using neodymium magnets. In this presentation, we will report on the results of our study using electromagnetic field analysis to further improve the characteristics of the laminated magnets developed by NDFEB Co., Ltd. using the hot press method.


Development of a Vibration and Acoustic Analysis Methodology for Electric Drive System using Wave Based Technique

Hong Ryul Kim (Hyundai Motor)

A new analysis method of vibration and vibro-acoustic for electric power system including motor, gear deceleration unit was developed in this paper. The methodology for electromagnetic analysis of traction motor, dynamic analysis for electric drive system and vibro-acoustic analysis was proposed and it shows satisfactory results to understand the dynamic properties of this system. The new method for vibro-acoustic method was examined to calculate the radiated acoustic level in mid frequency range, which is the main area of interest in electric drive system. The analysis results also show the main resonance mode, vibration order tracking, and the weakest part of acoustic radiation.

  • Session No.43 Thermal and Fluid Engineering for Carbon Neutral Society -Thermal Technology Contributing to Carbon Neutrality- (OS)
  • May 23Room G318+G3199:30-11:35
  • Chair: Satoshi Someya (Tokyo Denki University)
For the realization of well-to-wheel carbon neutrality, the latest research and development of thermal and fluid technologies that support the realization of extra-low-carbon mobility will be presented and discussed to promote global exchange of engineers and to improve mutual technological capabilities.
Thermal Management Engineering Committee, Vehicle Interior Environment Technical Committee, Vehicle Aerodynamics Committee, CFD (Computational Fuid Dynamics) Committee
Satoshi Someya (Tokyo Denki University), Masaki Teshi (Suzuki Motor)
No. Title・Author (Affiliation)

Investigation of Waste Heat Recovery Systems for a Series Hybrid Electric Vehicle with a Lean Burn SI Engine (Second Report)

Masaki Naruke・Takaaki Kitamura (JARI)

Recovering the waste heat is important to improve fuel efficiency of a hybrid electric vehicle. In this study, waste heat recovery (WHR) systems with phase change cooling (PCC) concept were applied to a series hybrid electric vehicle with a lean burn SI engine that can be operated at an excess air ratio of 2.0. The effects of combining WHR and PCC systems on fuel economy were evaluated by using one-dimensional numerical simulation.


Improved Mechanical Properties and Conversion Efficiency of Thermoelectric Power Generator for Automobile

Michihiro Ohta・Kishor Kumar Johari (AIST)・Masaki Naruke (JARI)・Yoshinori Tsuchiya (The Research association of Automotive Internal Combustion Engines)・Kazuki Imasato・Sauerschnig Philipp・Takao Ishida・Atsushi Yamamoto (AIST)

In this work, the thermoelectric device have been developed for waste heat (~200 degrees Celsius) recovery generated from automobile. The Mg3(Sb,Bi)2-based thermoelectric materials was used in our device, because their mechanical strength is better than that of the conventional Bi2Te3-based thermoelectric materials. The thermoelectric figure of merit of Mg3(Sb,Bi)2 at 200 degrees Celsius was successfully improved by tuning the chemical composition ratio of Sb and Bi.


Development of a Compact Rankine Cycle Generator with an Integrated-Component Structure (Fifth Report: Reconsideration of Pump and Waste Heat Recovery Section)

Katsuyuki Tanaka・Takashi Izumida・Nana Tonooka・Hiroki Kato・Chigusa Nakagawa・Tetsuhiro Wakiyama・Kenya Ohtsuka (Nihon University)

We reported the compact Rankine cycle generator with an integrated-component structure as the first report at this conference last year. After this structure was reconsidered, we found better to change the position of the pump and to separate the section of waste heat recovery. We will report the progress of the developments.


Study of Optimal Thermal Management System for Battery Based on Vehicle System 1D Simulation Model

Yuya Hato・Toshio Hirota・Yushi Kamiya (Waseda University)・Kiyotaka Sato (Mazda)

When using the electric power of the lithium-ion battery in the electric vehicle, it is necessary to take measures against battery voltage drop and degradation. To accomplish this, the system needs to be designed to manage the battery temperature appropriately and efficiently. We studied more efficient optimal thermal management system for mass-produced electric vehicle, which is used in charging and driving situation using the vehicle system 1D simulation model.


A Study on the Diagnostic Logic of Insufficient Coolant using Coolant Temperature Sensor

Suho Lee (Hyundai Motor)

In order to control the integrated flow control valve using the variable separation cooling technology, a total of three coolant temperature sensors are applied at the inlet of the engine, the outlet of the engine, and the location of the block, but there is no way for the driver to know about poor coolant filling or the leak of the coolant.
we developed a new logic to diagnose the lack of coolant by using three coolant temperature sensors that are already being applied without a separate increase in cost. If the flow rate decreases when the coolant is insufficient, The principle of increasing the coolant temperature difference was used. the principle evaluation was also conducted simultaneously on the metal surface temperature and fuel efficiency effect of the head/block.

  • Session No.44 Dynamics, Control and Safety of Two-Wheeled Vehicles -Motorcycles, Bicycles, and PMV- (OS)
  • May 23Room G318+G31912:35-14:15
  • Chair: Tomoya Kitani (Shizuoka University)
Two-wheeled Vehicle Dynamics Committee
Tetsunori Haraguchi (Nihon University), Masaru Asakawa (Hitachi Astemo), Tomoya Kitani (Shizuoka University), Junji Hirasawa (National Institute of Technology (KOSEN), Ibaraki College)
No. Title・Author (Affiliation)

Novel Measuring System using Omnidirectional Cameras and Spherical Mirrors and its Application for a Motorcycle Dynamics

Junji Hirasawa (Ibaraki College of Technology)

Author proposed a novel measuring method that use 2 omnidirectional cameras to measure a running motorcycle. This method has some problems, the largest problem is errors on the camera base line. To solve these problems, improving equipment with spherical mirrors were proposed. In this paper, results of running tests with an actual motorcycle are described.


Effect of Frame Deformation on Motorcycle Dynamics (First Report)

Kazunobu Sakamoto・Masahiro Kusakari・Yuki Nakatani・Hiroshi Kitagawa (Yamaha Motor)

In order to clarify the relationship between frame stiffness and dynamic performance, it is essential to understand the relationship between the forces and deformations that constitute stiffness. Therefore, frame deformation during actual running was obtained and the relationship between the forces and deformation applied during turning was analyzed. As a result, the characteristics of deformation that contribute to dynamic performance were found.


Analysis of the Effect of Frame Flexibility on the Weave Mode of Motorcycles
-Example of Multiple Frame Flexibility Influences-

Reiya Haraoka・Takahiko Yoshino・Tsuyoshi Katayama (Kurume Institute of Tecnology)

When multiple frame flexibility are involved, weave modes destabilize uniformly at high speed.
In this paper, we use the energy flow method to investigate the factors involved in the destabilization of multiple frame flexibility.


Analysis of the Influence of Aerodynamic Forces On the Stability of High-Speed Weave Mode of Motorcycles

Tsuyoshi Katayama・Reiya Haraoka・Ayaka Gyotoku・Takahiko Yoshino (Kurume Institute of Technology)

Analysis using a 10-degree-of-freedom frame flexibility model shows that the aerodynamic drag coefficient destabilizes the weave mode. Increasing the aerodynamic drag coefficient reduces the ground load on the front tire. As a result, the cornering power of the front tire decreases. Smaller cornering power delays the phase of the steering angle, which is the element that determines the front tire side force. The phase delay of the steering angle makes the weave mode unstable.

  • Session No.45 Advanced Diesel Engine Systems and Technologies (OS)
  • May 23Room G401+G4029:30-12:35
  • Chair: Takeshi Negishi (UD Trucks)
Discuss the latest technological trends in fuel spray formation and combustion aiming at both high efficiency and low emissions.
Diesel Engine Committee
Tetsuya Aizawa (Meiji University), Yoshio Zama (Gunma University), Yoshifumi Wakisaka (Toyota Central R&D Labs.), Naoto Horibe (Kyoto University), Takeshi Negishi (UD Trucks)
No. Title・Author (Affiliation)

NOx Reduction Strategy using Direct Water Injection in a Diesel Engine (First Report)
-Proposal of an In-Cylinder Water Stratification Concept at a Medium-Low Load-

Kazuhisa Inagaki (Toyota Central R&D Labs.)・Tsutomu Kawae (Toyota Industries)・Teruaki Kondo・Kazuaki Nishikawa (Toyota Central R&D Labs.)・Yo Usui (Toyota Industries)

We propose a concept of stratifying water within the combustion chamber to significantly reduce NOx emissions, and we have validated the performance with an actual prototype. The results are as follows:Through Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), we found that stratifying water along the fuel injection axis in the upper part of the cavity is more effective in reducing NOx emissions compared to homogeneity.The stratification of water distribution within the chamber not only reduces NOx but also decreases soot. When the mass ratio of water to fuel is 50%, under conditions of equal soot, NOx decreased to 1/4 compared to the case without water injection.


Study of Improving Indicated Thermal Efficiency with Higher Supercharging and Optimized Supercharging System on Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

Hiroaki Saito・Munemasa Hashimoto・Yoshinori Ishii (Isuzu Advanced Engineering Center)

In order to achieve high thermal efficiency in heavy duty diesel engines, high supercharging is an important method. In this study, combustion and heat balance analysis were carried out under different excess air ratio (lambda) condition using single cylinder testing engine, which is provided two-stage superchargers and can be controlled supercharging and exhaust pressure independently. This paper reports the lambda conditions and realizing constitution in actual engines which can achieve maximum indicated thermal efficiency, and the disadvantage of excessive high lambda operation.


Development and Application of Piston Temperature Estimation Method for a Diesel Engine

Takuro Mita (Isuzu Advanced Engineering Center)・Yorimasa Tsubota (Isuzu Motors)

A method to estimate the temperature of a piston made of aluminum alloy for diesel engines was developed. This method is simple and has a low computational cost, and accurately estimate the piston temperature during transient operations. Using this estimation method, it was possible to understand the stress that the piston and reduce fuel consumption when combined with oil path circuit control.


Development of High-Response Heat Insulation Material Technology in Engine Combustion Chamber to Improve the Fuel Economy (3rd Report)
-Development of Paint Model of Heat Insulation Coating and Confirmation of the Heat Insulation Effect of a Diesel Engine-

Masaya Minato・Ken Sakamoto・Yoshitaka Wada・Shinji Kadoshima・Yuki Nakanishi・Tsutomu Shigenaga・Takuya Noda・Kiyotomo Igawa・Kengo Nakashima・Sangkyu Kim (Mazda)

To decrease cooling loss of engines and improve fuel economy, we are developing heat insulation material technology. In order to uniformly and efficiently apply the heat-insulation coating to pistons with a complex shape, we constructed paint model that can visualize the spraying and coating conditions and accurately predict the required characteristics such as coating thickness.We report about this model and the heat insulation effect of the actual engine.


Combustion Process Analysis of Hydrogen/Diesel Dual-Fuel Engine by Numerical Simulation

Takafumi Kamino・Kenji Hiraoka・Takafumi Tentora・Gin Morita (Yanmar Holdings)

Hydrogen is mentioned as a power source toward carbon newtrality. In order to improve performance of hydrogen engines, it is necessary to clarify the combustion forms. In this study, 3D-CFD calculation and the combustion process analysis were carried out based on experimental results of pilot ignition hydrogen engine.


Combustion Analysis of the Hydrogen/Diesel Dual Fuel Engine with the Single Cylinder Engine Testing

Gin Morita・Takafumi Tentora・Kenji Hiraoka・Takafumi Kamino・Toru Takemoto (Yanmar Holdings)

Combustion characteristics of a diesel fuel ignited hydrogen engine were investigated with the single cylinder engine testing.
In the case of the homogeneous distribution of hydrogen, combustion parameters such as hydrogen-diesel fuel energy ratio, excess air ratio, and so on were changed and the effects of these parameters on the combustion were revealed.
Additionally, with the CFD calculation, the characteristics of the pilot diesel ignited hydrogen combustion were analyzed, and the results were reported in this paper.


A Study on the Optimization of Low-Temperature Low Pressure Circuit (LPC) Performance of Diesel Vehicles

Keun Soo Kim・Jung Hoon Park・Cheol Lee・Seung Yub Lee (Hyundai Motor)

The cooling and lubrication of the high-pressure pump in the diesel system is carried out by the fuel, so it is necessary to satisfy the required fuel flow of the high-pressure pump. In addition, the high pressure pump inlet pressure formation is important to prevent the generation of the high pressure pump internal cavitation, and the return pressure of the engine affects the operation of the injector, so the return pressure requirement is also very important. The performance of the heater in the fuel filter is an important for LPC performance development, as diesel fuel has the characteristics of reduced liquidity due to paraffin generation at low temperature, which may prevent the fuel filter from forming enough pressure.
This study aims to analyze the influence of each factor through vehicle testing on factors to be considered in developing cold LPC performance on diesel vehicles.

  • Session No.46 Exhaust Emission Catalyst System for Carbon Neutral Society (OS)
  • May 23Room G401+G40213:35-16:40
  • Chair: Masaaki Haneda (Nagoya Institute of Technology)
Recent technologies for exhaust emission catalyst system, which plays a key role for establishing zero-emission and low CO2 (Well to Wheel) from gasoline and diesel engine exhausts for carbon neutral (CN) society, will be discussed focusing on emission control catalysts and particulate filters as well as their systems and controlling methods.
Exhaust Catalyst System Committee
Takashi Aoki (NGK Insulators), Toshiro Itatsu (Cataler), Susumu Sato (Tokyo Institute of Technology), Kotaro Tanaka (Ibaraki University), Masaaki Haneda (Nagoya Institute of Technology), Kenji Fujii (Isuzu Advanced Engineering Center), Masao Hori (Umicore Shokubai), Hiroshi Anoda (Isuzu Motors)
No. Title・Author (Affiliation)

A Study on Improving Methane Purification Performance of a Three-Way Catalyst by Lean / Rich Lambda Oscillation (2nd Report)

Toyofumi Tsuda・Kazuya Miura・Yuya Ito・Shota Yokoo・Fumikazu Kimata (Suzuki Motor)

Methane is one of main components of automobile exhaust and has 25 times higher greenhouse effect than CO2. Methane is difficult to be purified by three-way catalyst (TWC) because of its stable chemical property. However, there is rich / lean lambda oscillation, methane purification rate is improved. In this study we clarified CO, NO, and H2O in the exhaust gases play a crucial role in improving the methane purification rate under lambda oscillations.


Air Path and Exhaust Aftertreatment Optimization for Medium-Duty Hydrogen Engines

Martin Weber・Thomas Spannaus・Hubertus Ulmer・Thaddaeus Delebinski (IAV)

For reaching the climate goals to slow down the global warming, an urgent decarbonization of the transport sector must be accomplished. Since hydrogen combustion engines emit pollutants like nitrogen oxides and unburnt hydrogen, emission aftertreatment systems will have to be implemented for future emission legislations like EU VII and Tier 5.
The proposed paper will present different exhaust aftertreatment technologies with focus on the impact of especially NOx and hydrogen slip. Investigations were carried-out with a holistic model-based simulation approach, using validated GT-Suite models as well as test bench results.


Analysis of Heated Urea Water Solution Spray in Urea Selective Reduction Catalyst Systems

Kentaro Inasaki・Yuta Kikugawa・Kanako Nishimura・Eriko Matsumura (Doshisha University)

In urea selective catalytic reduction systems under low exhaust gas temperature conditions, the urea is not decomposed completely and the NOx purification rate decreases. In this study, the urea water solution temperature was controlled to promote atomization, evaporation, and chemical reaction of the urea water solution spray. In this paper, the results of optical measurement analysis and the effect of heating on the atomization and phase change characteristics of the urea water solution spray are reported.


Analysis of Factors Affecting N2O Formation and Proposal of System Design Guidelines in the Urea SCR System

Kasumi Yoneyama・Kenji Fujii・Teppei Ohori・Hisashi Ozawa・Naoya Ishikawa (Isuzu Advanced Engineering Center)・Hiroshi Anoda (Isuzu Motors)

In the urea SCR systems, nitrous oxide (N2O) by-production during NOx conversion is an issue. In this study, a sensitivity analysis is performed using a combination of five factors included in a plant model of a urea SCR system. By clarifying the factors that contribute to N2O formation, we propose a design guideline for the urea SCR system that can both improve the NOx conversion ratio and suppress N2O formation.


Development of GPF Based on Capillary GPF Model for Euro7 Regulation

Sungmu Choi・Jiho Cho・Sangmin Lee (Hyundai Motor)

To predict PN(Particulate Number) filteration efficiency and pressure drop of GPF, capillary models of two on-wall coated GPFs and one membrane GPF were developed. The microstructure of the GPF was taken into account by several capillaries that can represent pore size distribution and porosity in GPF.
Capillary models of on-wall coated GPF and membrane GPF were calibrated based on engine bench tests. Membrane GPF showed higher PN filtration efficiency and lower pressure drop compared to the on-wall coated GPF. Maximizing PN filteration efficiency of on-wall coated GPF based on its capillary model was investigated by removing cracks on coating layer. The effect of engine-out PN and PM(Particulate Mass) on GPF-out PN by its capillary model was investigated to meet Euro7 regulation. It was found that larger particle was more effective in reducing GPF-out PN than smaller one under the same engine-out PN conditions.


Development of Technology for Predicting the Activity of Exhaust Gas Purification Catalysts by the First Principle Calculations

Miura Kazuya (Suzuki Motor)・Hiroki Kusaba・Tomoya Miyoshi (Kumamoto University)・Hiroshi Yoshida (Kanazawa University)・Hiroyuki Tsuchizaki (Suzuki Motor)・Masato Machida (Kumamoto University)

This study proposes a technique to predict the catalytic activity using the first principle calculation. The proposed method consists of three parts. (1) Assume the detailed chemical reactions. (2) Estimate the activation energy (Ea) for each reaction by the first principle calculation. (3) Input estimated Ea values into the simulation software for chemical kinetics (e.g. exothermia-suite). The validity of proposed method was evaluated. This study predicted the catalytic activity of Rh (111) surface for CO-NO-O2 reaction. The predicted results reproduced well the experimental results of the Rh thin-film catalyst, which was prepared by the "arc plasma method".


Study on PN Characteristics by Type of Damaged DPF for Diesel Vehicles Operating in the IDLE Condition

Jaeun Yoo・Giyoung Park・Sujeong Jang・Seangwock Lee (Kookmin University)

Road traffic is one of the biggest cause of urban air pollution, and particulate matter(PM) emitted from diesel vehicles is harmful to respiratory health. In some countries, there is a trend to regulate PM emissions from diesel vehicles during periodic technical inspections. A project to attach an exhaust gas reduction device was carried out in Republic of Korea, but the Retro-fit DPF is known to be less efficient in reducing pollutants in the exhaust gas due to poor management. In this experiment, the damaged DPF was installed on the test vehicle and the PN characteristics emitted were compared and analyzed.

  • Session No.47 Active Safety and Advanced Driver Assistance Systems I (OS)
  • May 23Room G4039:30-10:45
  • Chair: Kenta Maeda (Hitachi)
Discussion on the development of advanced driver assistance systems and their effects on active safety, with the aim of reducing damage from accidents, the number of accidents and near-misses, and ensuring the safety and comfort of drivers and their surrounding environment.
Active Safety Engineering Committee
Motoki Shino (Tokyo Institute of Technology), Yuichi Omoda (Japan Automobile Research Institute), Tsukasa Shimizu (Toyota Central R&D Labs.), Kenta Maeda (Hitachi), Chiyomi Miyajima (Daido University)
No. Title・Author (Affiliation)

Study on Driver's Driving Behavior Depending on the Occurrence Location of Tire Blowout

Masahiko Aki・Takumi Iume・Koki Kunieda・Koya Soeno・Shinichiro Horiuchi (Nihon University)

This paper deals with a lane-keeping control under a tire blowout. In previous papers, the lane-keeping control under a tire blowout to confirm effectiveness of only the steering torque control was carried out without presenting auditory information. In this paper, a DS experiment to evaluate the effect of presenting auditory information on lane keeping control under tire blowout was carried out.


Feature Analysis of Taxi Drivers in Traffic Accident Data to Use Autonomous Vehicle Safety Assurance Study

Masami Aga (Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology)・Yoshiaki Matsuo・Ryuji Funayama (Woven by Toyota)・Toru Kiuchi (Institute for Traffic Accident Research and Data Analysis)・Masao Nagai (Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology)

The drive recorder database of the Smart Mobility Research Center of Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology is considered to be useful for safety assurance for autonomous vehicles. This database is based on taxi drives’ drive recorder data. Therefore, in advance to commence the safety assurance, we clarified whether taxi drivers could be regarded to be Competent and Careful human drivers, and the similarities and differences between taxi drivers and general drivers.


Study of the Appropriate Bicycle-Approach-Notification Timing Presented in Car-to-Bicyclist V2X System

Asuka Harada・Hitoshi Kanamori (Nagoya University)・Yasunobu Yokoi (Toyota Motor)・Nihan Karatas・Yuki Yoshihara・Takahiro Tanaka (Nagoya University)

In a driver assistance system, the information presented at inappropriate timing reduces reliability and acceptability. Therefore, we conducted a DS experiment to investigate the relationship between the necessity for notifying approaching bicycles and their position and speed. As a result, it was found that whether or not the notification is judged appropriate could be estimated by the TTC of the bicycle. it was also found that informing the reason is effective in help preventing distrust when the bicyclist changed his/her path after the notification.

  • Session No.48 Active Safety and Advanced Driver Assistance Systems II (OS)
  • May 23Room G40312:10-13:50
  • Chair: Yuichi Omoda (JARI)
Discussion on the development of advanced driver assistance systems and their effects on active safety, with the aim of reducing damage from accidents, the number of accidents and near-misses, and ensuring the safety and comfort of drivers and their surrounding environment.
Active Safety Engineering Committee
Motoki Shino (Tokyo Institute of Technology), Yuichi Omoda (Japan Automobile Research Institute), Tsukasa Shimizu (Toyota Central R&D Labs.), Kenta Maeda (Hitachi), Chiyomi Miyajima (Daido University)
No. Title・Author (Affiliation)

Development of an Automatic Calculation Method for Infrastructure Support Sensor Placement to Eliminate Blind Spots at Intersections

Takahiro Sakai・Teppei Saitoh (Hitachi)

We have developed a method to automatically calculate sensor placement that eliminates blind spots at intersections based on operation design domain (ODD) conditions and road networks in order to reduce the design effort for an autonomous driving system (ADS) that cooperates with infrastructure support sensors in the ODD. As a result, we were confirmed that the method can calculate infrastructure sensor placement that eliminates blind spots from the viewpoint of ADS while considering the degradation of recognition performance due to weather conditions.


Long Baseline Stereo Camera for Adaptive Driving Beam Evaluation

Shunya Kumano・Nao Ikeda・Yumi Yamada・Yusuke Ueda・Naoki Kawasaki (SOKEN)・Kiichiro Kawakami (Toyota Motor)

The auto high beam is a function to detect other vehicles and switch the beam so as not to cause glare, and it is expected to operate further to 1 km due to resent improvements in lamp brightness. As a system for automating the performance evaluation, we propose a 90 cm baseline stereo camera and a measurement technology that satisfies the ranging accuracy of -20/+10% by disparity calculation robust to light source flare.


Proposal of a Steering Assist System Considering Individual Driver's Operational Input Constraints

Daisuke Nagasaka (J-QuAD DYNAMICS)・Akira Ito・Hiroyuki Okuda (Nagoya University)・Sigenori Ichinose・Yosuke Omori・Katsumasa Koike・Yusuke Fujii (J-QuAD DYNAMICS)

This presentation proposes a novel vehicle lateral motion control method that adapts to the individual steering range, diverging from conventional control methods based on the average driver. By considering each driver's operable steering range, it dynamically controls yaw movement and reactionary torque. This approach allows even drivers with physical constraints to achieve smooth steering, aiming to provide a comfortable and safe driving experience without the need for complex steering operations.


Autonomous Emergency Braking Performance in Electric Vehicles and Influence on the Japan New Car Assessment Program (JNCAP)

Álvaro Esquer Molina・Marc Llaó (Applus+ IDIADA)

In the context of this research, we explore AEB technology with a focus on improving its performance in terms of efficiency and driver acceptance. Our investigation involves studying the current AEB system's performance and comparing it with the braking capabilities of the vehicle. Furthermore, we explore the integration of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) in electric vehicles (EVs). Within this context, we scrutinize their applications within the framework of the Japan New Car Assessment Program (JNCAP), with the objective of augmenting overall safety outcomes.

  • Session No.49 New Movement of Model Distribution and Model Based Development I (OS)
  • May 23Room G4049:30-11:10
  • Chair: Masakazu Mukai (Kogakuin University)
Vehicle Control and Modeling Engineering Committee
Yutaka Hirano (HIRANO Research Lab.), Yuji Yasui (Honda R&D), Masakazu Mukai (Kogakuin University)
No. Title・Author (Affiliation)

Moduralization of Vehicle Simulation Model for Efficient Digital Development

Yukihiro Adachi (Toyota Motor)

Many simulation tools are used for car development, as appropriate tools depend on the component and phenomenon. Therefore, model conversion and re-creation are often required when assembling a full car model. Such additional works decrease development efficiency. To improve this problem, modular model concept is introduced, which consists of some modularized component models, coupled each other by co-simulation. A proof-of-concept model was created, and offline calculations and application to steering HiL and driving simulators were performed.


SIL-HIL Hybrid Simulation Environment for Automotive Software Validation

Katsuya Tsuzuki (dSPACE Japan)・Andre Hildebrandt (dSPACE)・Rafael Yunis (dSPACE Engineering d.o.o.)・Fabian Bronner・Martin Ruehl (dSPACE)

As ECU software becomes more complex, the Software In the Loop (SIL) environment is attracting attention for virtual validation, while the Hardware In the Loop (HIL) environment continues to play an essential role and is at least required for final checks.
In this study, transitions between SIL and HIL are presented and use cases for hybrid environments are discussed.


Cross-Company Collaborative Model-Based Development using FMI3.0 and SSP Traceability Specification

Dai Araki (Toshiba Digital Solutions)

FMI and SSP are interface standards for exchanging simulation models between heterogeneous tools. FMI standard has updated to 3.0 in May 2022 and SSP standard is announced to be upgraded to 2.0. This paper discuss the effects of these latest standards on the realization of cross-team / cross-company collaborative model-based development and propose a tool chain for effectively utilizing the new standards.


Study of the Method for Refinement of Design Parameters Considering Tolerances by MBD

Junichi Ichimura (The Open University of Japan/NewtonWorks)

Consideration of the influence of the tolerance is important in product design.
We study the parameter study flow for the evaluation of product performance including tolerance, using the 1DCAE brake model: (i) analysis without interaction, (ii) analysis with variation, and (iii) analysis with exhaustive calculations.

  • Session No.50 New Movement of Model Distribution and Model Based Development II (OS)
  • May 23Room G40412:10-14:15
  • Chair: Yutaka Hirano (HIRANO Research Lab.)
Vehicle Control and Modeling Engineering Committee
Yutaka Hirano (HIRANO Research Lab.), Yuji Yasui (Honda R&D), Masakazu Mukai (Kogakuin University)
No. Title・Author (Affiliation)

The Evolution of Power Unit Development Process through MBD (First Report)
-Standardization of 1D-Model and Application in Power Unit Development-

Kenichiro Ogata・Akihiro Katsuura・Minako Tsuji・Go Toshizane・Satoshi Watanabe・Hiromu Iwase・Takumi Matsumoto (Honda Motor)

To achieve the high efficiency of power unit development through the application of MBD, 1D system model that can flexibly respond to the refinement of model granularity and domain extension is necessary. The refinement of model granularity requires 1D sub-system models, and domain extension requires models with expanded behavioral representations. This paper presents an initiative for standardizing the 1D system model and discusses the evolution of the development process by applying a virtual development environment that integrates the 1D sub-system models and the expanded behavioral models to power unit development.


The Evolution of Power Unit Development Process through MBD (Second Report)
-Development and Application of a Coupled Simulation Environment for Engine Control System Development and Calibration using Engine Plant Model-

Akihiro Katsuura・Kenichiro Ogata・Minako Tsuji・Hidekazu Hironobu (Honda Motor)

To improve the high efficiency of power unit development through the application of MBD,1D system model that can flexibly respond to the refinement of model granularity and domain extension is necessary. The refinement of model granularity requires 1D sub-system models.
This paper presents an initiative where a model coupling the 1D sub-system model with the engine plant model and the control model was constructed and applied to engine control development and calibration.


The Evolution of Power Unit Development Process through MBD (Third Report)
-Application of Response Surface Models to Accelerate Coupled Simulation for Engine Control System Development and Calibration-

Tsuji Minako・Akihiro Katsuura・Kenichiro Ogata・Hidekazu Hironobu (Honda Motor)

Real-time model has been proposed to accelerate a engine plant model, and it has been utilized for engine control system development and calibration by coupling with a controller model. To expand its use in analyses that require more accuracy, simulation results of a detailed engine plant model and response surface models were used to achieve both of the calculation speed and accuracy requirements.


The Evolution of Power Unit Development Process through MBD (Forth Report)
-Driving Strength Analysis Using 1D System Model and Application in Power Unit Development-

Go Toshizane・Kenichiro Ogata・Masatoshi Okuda・Yuto Otsuki (Honda Motor)

For highly efficient power unit development, it is important to construct a detailed 1D system model and predict vehicle performance in the performance design phase, considering market usage conditions. Market load forecasting technology using market data, which has been increasingly utilized in the automotive industry in recent years, is indispensable for highly accurate performance prediction. In this study, we developed a simulation technology that can analyze market driving strength by using a 1D system model and market data. Furthermore, we describe how the representative data extracted from the driving strength analysis results can be used to predict vehicle performance.


Evolution of the Power Unit Development Process through MBD Fifth Report
-Construction of an Interior Noise Prediction Model Coupled with a 1D System Model-

Satoshi Watanabe・Kenichiro Ogata・Hiromu Iwase (Honda Motor)・Taketo Maeda・Kazuya Kawada (Auto Technic Japan)

Noise and Vibration development of two-motor hybrid systems, in which the engine mainly generates electricity, is important not only for hardware development but also for control development. The NVH simulator coupled with a 1D system model was utilized for control development in the initial stage of the two-motor hybrid system development to reproduce the interior noise during acceleration and enable auditory judgment.

  • Session No.51 Next-Generation Advanced Production Engineering for Automotive Material III (OS)
  • May 23Room G414+G4159:30-12:10
  • Chair: Koshiro Aoki (Shibaura Institute of Technology)
Proposal of advanced production technologies to support the manufacturing of future mobility for automotive materials.
Advanced Manufacturing Technology Committee, Materials Committee, Manufacturing Engineering Committee
Takashi Matsumura (Tokyo Denki University), Koshiro Aoki (Shibaura Institue of Technology), Jun Ichinose (FASOTEC), Yoshitomi Yamada (Isuzu Motors), Ryousuke Date (Daihatsu Motor), Hiroki Sugiyama (Mazda)
No. Title・Author (Affiliation)

Establishment of Resistance Seam Welding Technology for Stainless Steel Foil Materials

Shion Koyama・Ryo Konno・Souichiro Nishino (Ibaraki University)・Seiya Yoshikawa (ART-HIKARI)・Tetsuya Nogami・Reina Araya (NOGAMI)

The use of stainless steel foil material is being considered to achieve both thin-wall and lightweight designs in battery systems. In this study, resistance seam welding was applied to stainless steel foil materials ranging from 200 μm to 20 μm, and joint strength and fracture morphology were investigated. Although sufficient joint strength was achieved for all thicknesses, it was found that the fracture morphology and joint morphology differed depending on the thickness.


Development and Performance Evaluation of Hermetic Seals using Plastic Flow Joining

Taketo Nakajima・Kaoru Mannami・Souichiro Nishino (Ibaraki University)・Ryo Tominaga・Naonori Ishii (Aoyama Seisakusho Ibaraki Factory)

Hermetic seals using plastic flow bonding are attracting attention in battery components for electric vehicles. However, the cost is high due to tight dimensional tolerances. The objective of this study was to produce a hermetically seal that can maintain its performance even when the dimensional accuracy is made rough. The roughness of dimensional accuracy was reproduced by increasing the clearance between parts, and the airtightness and strength of the seal were examined.


A Study on Causes and Prevention of Wheel Bolt Loosening in Heavy Duty Vehicles

Soichi Hareyama・Ken-Ichi Manabe・Satoshi Kobayashi (Tokyo Metropolitan University)

Accidents involving wheels falling off of large vehicles continue to occur. Related organizations have instructed the need for proper tightening torque management and retightening. This study examines the causes of wheel bolt loosening based on the properties of the torque method (Calibrated wrench method), and examines and proposes a loosening prevention method. When tightening with a torque wrench, the initial axial force obtained varies from 1.4 to 3, depending on the lubrication conditions. This means that some bolts have an initial clamping force of 90% of the yield clamping force when tightened with many wheel bolts, but some bolts have only 30% of the yield clamping force. It is possible that sufficient clamping force cannot be obtained even if retightening is performed. This suggests that the torque method should be used in conjunction with an effective loosening preventing methods or devices in the prevention of wheel bolt loosening.


Effect of Shot Peening Treatment on the Formation of Hydroxide Film and Bending Strength in Cast Magnesium Alloy

Kento Tamura・Souichiro Nishino (Ibaraki University)・Daisuke Suzuki (Yamanashi Industrial Technology Center)

Magnesium hydroxide film in hydrothermal treatment improves the corrosion resistance of magnesium alloys, but non-uniformity of the film has been a problem in cast magnesium alloys. In this study, we proposed a method to form hydroxide film that gives corrosion resistance evenly by shot peening treatment of die-cast magnesium alloy.


Technology to Improve the Durability of Coating Dies in Press Working of Al Alloys

Ryu Yoshiura・Souichiro Nishino (Ibaraki University)・Yukitaka Sumiya (Japan Coating Center)・Minoru Kouta (Yamanoi Seiki)

In this study, we evaluated the durability of coated dies in a lubricant-free press work test of Al alloys. In order to suppress the adhesion of Al alloy in the die damage mechanism, we selected a coating focusing on the surface characteristics of the coating. As a result, the use of a DLC coating suppressed adhesion in the press working of Al alloys.


PVD Coating to Improve Die Durability in Press Working of 1470MPa Class High Tensile Strength Steel

Ryutaro Kanazawa・Nanako Seki・Souichiro Nishino (Ibaraki University)・Yukitaka Sumiya (Japan Coating Center)・Minoru Kouta (Yamanoi Seiki)

As steel is becoming stronger and stronger from the viewpoint of weight reduction of car bodies, the life of press dies is becoming a problem. Press dies are coated to improve their service life, but not many coatings have been developed for the recently developed 1470 MPa class high tensile steel. In this study, we propose a PVD coating that improves the durability of dies based on the number of layers in a multi-layer coating and the difference in hardness between the layers.

  • Session No.52 Organic and Polymer Materials
  • May 23Room G414+G41513:10-15:15
  • Chair: Susumu Miura (Nissan Motor)
No. Title・Author (Affiliation)

Virtual Experiments using Machine Learning to Establish PA6 Depolymerization Conditions and Reaction Formulation based on Real Experiments

Haruki Chiba・Shoko Namera・Shuta Suzuki・Yasushi Terasaka・Satoshi Hirawaki (Honda R&D)

There are four main influencing factors in setting the conditions for PA6 depolymerization using the subcritical water method, and it requires a lot of resources to get an overview of the influences. Therefore, we worked on modeling technology using machine learning. By comparing the studied model and the Arrhenius plot model, we were able to construct a modeling technique that closely matches experiments regarding monomer yield conditions.


Development of Improved Friction Performance PA6-HMWPE Blends for Interior Parts

Yonghyeon Shin・Donguk Lee (Hyundai Motor)・Jaewon Moon・Sijun Park (Korea Polyacetal)

Friction characteristics between heterogeneous materials affect component's operating performance and friction noise, which are important factors for interior parts. In this paper, we studied on PA6/HMWPE-blended composite material with low friction coefficient and excellent self-lubrication property. To enable injection moulding of HMWPE which has low melt flow rate due to high molecular weight, research on material with improved melt flow rate and compatibility through the development of HMWPE mater batches and the addition of compatibilizer was preceded. And with this research, some interior parts that require operating performance were developed, and a composition suitable for each part's characteristics was derived.


Effect of Heating Temperature on Surface Modification of Silicone Hard Coat over Polycarbonate by Vacuum Ultraviolet Irradiation

Akihiro Shimizu (Ushio Inc.)・Ren Iida・Shinji Kambara (Gifu University)

Nojiri et al. developed a technology that modifies a silicone hardcoat surface with vacuum ultra-violet (VUV) irradiation to achieve wear resistance comparable to inorganic glass. To realize high productivity by applying the technique to the mass production of automobile window materials, it is necessary to reduce the VUV irradiation dose required for the modification. This study investigated the effect of heating temperature during VUV irradiation on the modification using nanoindentation. We found that the higher the heating temperature during VUV irradiation, the greater surface hardness at the same VUV irradiation dose, indicating that heating accelerates the modification.


Development of Heat Insulating Fabric Inspired by Silver Ants

Yuki Izawa・Kenji Miyazaki・Yasuhiro Ueda・Kana Tsunaba (Toyota Boshoku)・Tsuyoshi Kamitamari・Jun Syoyama (Seiren)

The temperature of automotive interior parts increases by about 100℃ under direct sun light. Passengers feel uncomfortable, and the energy is consumed by the A/C to cool them down. The silver ants in desert can reflect the sun light by their unique body hairs like ultra-fine and triangle cross-section. We developed a woven fabric by mimicking the specific body hair structure. As a result, the interior parts covered by the fabric decrease by 20℃ compared to conventional materials. Additionally, it has a silky design.


Approach to Reduce Environmental Impact of Fiber Reinforced Plastic by using Flat Glass Fiber

Yosuke Nukui・Shunsuke Harashima (Nittoboseki)

In recent years, there is a strong demand for the materials used in automotive to reduce the environmental impact (CFP reduction, recycling), and glass fiber used in fiber-reinforced plastic is also required to contribute to this demand.
In this research, we report the potential to reduce the CFP of fiber-reinforced plastic and to add value to the materials when they are recycled by using flat glass fiber

  • Session No.53 xEV System Design
  • May 23Room G416+G4179:30-10:20
  • Chair: Kantaro Yoshimoto (Tokyo Denki University)
No. Title・Author (Affiliation)

Application Example of MBSE for HEV Fuel Efficiency Allocation Independent of System Configuration

Hironori Yumura・Takuya Machida (SUBARU)

During the initial planning stages for selecting HEV systems, fuel efficiency is a crucial metric. Predicting this performance through simulations is vital. However, the vast number of different system configurations, each requiring unique plant and control models, makes comprehensive simulation impractical due to the extensive workload. Therefore, in this paper, we introduce a case where the simulation model was simplified based on the inherent functions of HEVs, and target allocation was conducted.


Systematic Engineering Methods Enable Fast, Cost Efficient & Target-Oriented Development of Upcoming EV (Electric Vehicle) Generations

Youta Morinaga (AVL Japan)・Peter Ebner・Stefan Eder・Michael Maletz・Engelbert Loibner・Josef Zehentner (AVL List)

In the automotive market there is high pressure on development speed & cost. It must be ensured that under such boundary conditions all requirements are still met.

In this current transition phase in the automotive engineering world, (Model-based) systems engineering, (MB)SE is an enabler to handle the new complexity. It addresses the need for a new systematic, target focused efficient development process.

The paper will therefore cover beside MBSE itself, development topics like virtualization (integrated simulation) and the digitalization within the process such as digital twin and connected data, continuous traceability of development artefacts and monitoring of product maturity.

  • Session No.54 Road Traffic Safety
  • May 23Room G418+G4199:30-12:10
  • Chair: Yasufumi Sekine (Fukuyama University)
No. Title・Author (Affiliation)

Improving Vehicle Safety in African countries

Victor Garcia Santamaria (Applus+ IDIADA)・Niccolò Baldanzini・Simone Piantini (University of Florence)

Based on the work done in the TRANS-SAFE project, which has the focus in reducing disproportionate amount of road deaths in Africa compared to the rest of the world through different approaches, the paper includes a study of the root causes of the problems in Africa, including its aged, unsafe vehicle fleet. This papers viewpoint is to make vehicles safer through a series of actions and recommendations, which include an approach to new adapted regulations and a retrofit system to adapt older vehicles to newer standards through aftermarket ADAS devices, that will be assessed through demonstration activities in African soil.


A Study on Web Framework Architecture for Infotainment System

Joonhyung Kim (Hyundai Motor)

Recently, an infotainment system has evolved into a platform for external contents like video streaming and game, and web is one promising solution. In this paper, I address two architectural points for designing web framework for an infotainment system, and choose the best design among candidates. The first architectural point is a process architecture; between centralized and distributed architecture, centralized architecture is chosen by its better memory efficiency and interoperability. The second architectural point is a system UI integration; among three candidates, native overlay app architecture wins over most aspects. Based on the results, web framework is developed and on mass production.


Study on Ventilation Volume of EV in the Case of Transport for COVID-19 Patient (Part3)

Koichi Oshino

Cabin ventilation is important in the case of transport for COVD-19 patients. It is two methods, the interior air circulation and the outside air introducing. The problems of the interior air circulation are discussed in the first report of this study. Outside air introducing has two methods, outside air introducing at the closed window, and the opening window. Both methods have the satisfied ventilation volume. However, the small opening window method, it is not cleared the relation between opening width and the ventilation volume. Here, its relation is examined by the simple method.


Statistical Analysis of Driving Characteristics using ETC2.0 Probe Data

Norihiko Kato・Yoshihiro Suda (The University of Tokyo)

In this research, we aim to utilize ETC2.0 probe data for driving evaluation and safe driving support by calculating the acceleration/deceleration for each fixed distance section from long-term vehicle speed and sampling time information and performing statistical analysis.


SOTIF Development and Safety Analysis using the Safety Concept Description Language SCDL, and International Standardization of SCDL

Nobuaki Tanaka (OTSL)・Shuhei Yamashita (DNV Business Assurance Japan)・Yoshiaki Shoi (ASAM Japan)

We report on the concept and international standardization efforts of SCDL NextGen, the next generation standard for SCDL (Safety Concept Description Language), which is a semi-formal notation for safety concepts in functional safety standards. SCDL NextGen expands the scope of use of the notation to include cybersecurity, SOTIF, and safety analysis.
This paper also reports on the semi-formalization of safety analysis and a case study of the SOTIF safety architecture.


Traffic Control of Automated Guided Vehicles by Quantum Annealing

Keigo Noguchi (Toyota Motor)・Kanto Teranishi (Fixstars)・Toru Takashima・Yoshinori Suga (Toyota Motor)・Munehiro Doi・Yasuhiko Shiota (Fixstars)

This paper proposes a method to optimize the route and speed of multiple large AGVs used in factories using quantum annealing ising machines. This method involves dividing a series of travelings into driving elements and searching the optimal combination of these elements. This paper compares the effects of optimization achieved by introducing variations in the driving elements through simulations.

  • Session No.55 Safety Education・Sensor for Safety
  • May 23Room G418+G41913:10-15:15
  • Chair: Yasuhiro Matsui (NALTEC)
No. Title・Author (Affiliation)

Development of an Onboard Unit using Both an Edge AI Device and Location Information for Safe Driving Education at Stop-Controlled Intersections in ASSIST

Manato Ando・Kazuaki Goshi・Masaki Hayashi・Yasuaki Sumida (Kyushu Sangyo University)・Katsuya Matsunaga (Kyushu University)

Most drivers just slow down without completely stopping at Stop-controlled Intersections. To avoid collision, a driver should stop firmly and watch for a safe opportunity to continue driving. We have developed an Assistant System for Safe Driving by Informative Supervision and Training (ASSIST).
Until now, in order to detect stop-controlled intersections, we have developed the two systems separately. One system uses edge AI devices, and the other system uses location information. In this study, we developed a system that improve the detection rate of stop-controlled intersections by using both edge AI devices and location information.


Verification of Driving Characteristics of Patients with Brain Diseases using a Driving Simulator

Masashi Ikota・Yoshiyuki Onuki・Tomoaki Ban・Sasai Yoshimitu・Maiko Kikuchi・Miho Inoue・Gen Kusaka (Jichi Medical University)・Jin Kusaka (Waseda University)・Kensuke Kawai (Jichi Medical University)

The driving ability of a group of patients with brain disease (50 patients in total) was measured using a driving simulator with a group of healthy subjects (65 patients in total), and their higher brain functions were also evaluated. The patient group showed a significant decrease in the Cognitive function test. The simulator measurements of the patient group showed significant reductions in specific items, and the characteristics of the cerebellar and frontal lobe lesions, which were the disease sites, were also verified.


A Study on the Plan to Create a New Concept Space Based on the Purpose of Use of Electric Vehicles and Optimal Application to Vehicles

Jungho Lim・Hyunsu Shin (Hyundai Motor)

Currently, consumers are less inclined to buy a car. This is due to the development of other transportation methods and the inefficiency of the time that vehicles are parked in parking lots.
In order to satisfy the changed requirements of consumers, this paper investigated a method that can provide optimized space according to the purpose of individual use when the vehicle is stationary. In order to go beyond the conceptual idea, a new total layout was realized for a vehicle with a length of 5,000 mm or less.


Impact Assessment of Wet Snow Accretion on Millimeter Wave Radar Range Detectability

Kengo Sato (National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Resilience)・Kentaro Kanaya・Takaaki Shibasaki・Kenichiro Imai・Ichiro Nakane・Hideo Inoue・Shigeo Kimura (Kanagawa Institute of Technology)

Currently, distance detection systems using millimeter-wave radar are widely used to assist safe driving of automobiles.However it is known that the detection capability of millimeter-wave radar is severely hampered by snow accretion on the radar radome during cold weather. in this study, we experimentally investigated the effect of snow accretion on radar at 79 GHz wavelengths changing the thickness and the liquid water content of snow with using artificially formed snow flakes. The results quantitatively show the relationship between the thickness and the liquid water content of snow and the attenuation of the radar received signal strength.


A Generation Method of mmWave Radar Scattering Points on a Vehicle by Ray Tracing Simulator

Yusuke Isono・Masakazu Ikeda (SOKEN)・Hideo Inoue (Kanagawa Institute of technology)

We are aiming to develop a simulator that can replace actual driving tests for automatic driving.
When using a 3D model of a vehicle for a common camera, there is a difference in the location of scattering points between the actual measurement and the simulation of a vehicle using millimeter-wave radar.
In this paper, we clarify the locations of vehicle scattering points by using high-resolution imaging radar.
By reflecting the measurement results in the simulation model, it is possible to reproduce the vehicle scattering points in the simulation.

  • Session No.56 xEV I (OS)
  • May 24Room G301+G3029:30-11:35
  • Chair: Takashi Majima (IHI Inspection & Instrumentation)
The newest control technologies of BEV, HEV, PHEV, and FCV (However, FC and their accessories are focused on in another session) systems or components that relate drive performance are discussed in this session.
Electric Drive Technology Committee
Osamu Shimizu (The University of Tokyo), Takashi Majima (IHI Measurement), Shintaro Oshio (Nissan Motor)
No. Title・Author (Affiliation)

Development of HEV Battery SOC Control by Destination Prediction

Keita Asakura・Hiroyuki Tokita・Kan Saito (Toyota Motor)

In order to efficiently warm up engine in HEV during winter, we developed battery SOC control using destination prediction. It predicts the next destination based on the past driving history of the vehicle and estimates whether it will be parked for a long term. When it is estimated that the vehicle will be parked for a long term, the battery SOC will be changed in preparation for warm-up control on the next trip.


3.5Litter Plugin Hybrid System for the Chauffeur
-“Inheritance” and “Evolution”-

Kei Mashiki・Keita Hashimoto・Takaji Kikuchi (Toyota Motor)

Along with the renewal of the Toyota Century, the new V6 3.5L PHEV system was developed with the aim of achieving three outstanding performance points of "comfort, quietness, and ride comfort" when riding.
In order to provide chauffeur cars for a carbon-neutral society, we adopted a PHEV system that can use two power sources, an engine and a motor.
It achieved a maximum output of 303kW, an EV range of 69km, and a WLTC mode fuel economy of 14.2km/L.


Downsizing and Cost Reduction of e-Drive-Unit by Innovative Phase Change Cooling

Christoph Danzer・Stephan Guenther・Volker Ambrosius・Philipp Moritz・Thomas Arnold・Tobias Voigt・Manfred Prueger・Michael Barth・Marc Sens・Heiko Rabba (IAV)

Electric vehicles are dominated by high efficiency requirements and highest cost pressure. In contrast to improving the power density of electric axles with the aim of higher performance, IAV applies the advanced phase change cooling technology (PCC) which offers the potential to close the gap between peak and continuous power level. Target is the evaluation of the cost- & size-reduction of the electrical machine and the inverter by ensuring the same vehicle performance and efficiency level. Finally, IAV will recommend the best-balanced powertrain system and its po-tential for the next generation of carbon neutral electric mobility.


A Study on Energy Analysis and Effect of Energy Efficiency by Vehicle Factors in Certification Mode using EV Analysis Model

Sung-Jin Kim・Hyung-Jin Kim・Sang-Jae Lee・Oh-Sung Choi・Kang-Won Lee・Deok-keun Shin (Hyundai Motor)

This paper shows the study of EV energy flow analysis and influences of EV factors for AER/Energy efficiency in certification mode. Energy flow analysis is a tool for calculating of driving and regeneration energy of EV to find important influence factors. To define priority factors of EV for AER/Energy efficiency and degree of influence in detail, specific factor variation analysis is also carried out. To study detail influence factors of EV helps to develop the high AER/Energy efficiency vehicle.


Evaluation of Vibration Suppression Control for Parallel Shaft e-Axle using Test Bench System

Michi Oda (The University of Tokyo/Onosokki)・Sakahisa Nagai・Hiroshi Fujimoto (The University of Tokyo)・Koji Sato・Kana Mizoguchi・Naoki Takizawa (Onosokki)・Hidemasa Fujita・Kota Yamamoto・Tohru Urano (Mitsubishi Motors)

Unlike internal-combustion engine vehicles, electrified vehicles can suppress the vibration by the motor which can output positive and negative torque with high responsiveness. In this paper, we describe the control development using the test bench to suppress the vibration caused by bushes and drive shafts on a vehicle with an e-Axle. In the test bench, low-inertia dynamometers are used, which can simulate the vehicle behavior with high reproducibility and accurately measure the frequency responses that cannot be obtained in an actual driving test. In addition, the controller designs can be developed efficiently.

  • Session No.57 xEV II (OS)
  • May 24Room G301+G30212:35-14:40
  • Chair: Shintaro Oshio (Nissan Motor)
The newest hardware technologies of BEV, HEV, PHEV, and FCV (However, FC and their accessories are focused on in another session) systems or components that relate drive performance are discussed in this session. It also includes e-axle, hybrid systems, transmission systems, and so on.
Electric Drive Technology Committee
Osamu Shimizu (The University of Tokyo), Takashi Majima (IHI Measurement), Shintaro Oshio (Nissan Motor)
No. Title・Author (Affiliation)

Next Generation 800V SiC High-Speed eDrive Technology for Electrified Propulsion

Mitsuru Ishihara・Harsha Nanjundaswamy・Andi Diko・Joel Deussen・Aaron Sinka・Aleksandar Mateski・James Bourn (BorgWarner)

The design of the new iDM180-HF begins with a system level requirements analysis for the 100kW to 250kW passenger vehicle segments from which component level performance targets are established. The system housing of iDM180-HF is designed to package both low and high-performance motor variants to enable an ultra-compact 3-in-1 platform solution that leverages economies of scale for cost reduction. A unique packaging strategy of iDM180-HF architecture is also discussed with an emphasis on the cooling strategies improving the system peak performance.


Consideration on Lubrication of High-Speed Rotating Gear (Third Report)
-Case Study of Efficient Tooth Surface Lubrication Method-

Kensuke Suzuki・Tomoyuki Hara・Kaori Sakai・Masayoshi Ohno・Kazuki Sakai・Rian Setyo Adi・Junji Yamada (Univance)

Through previous reports, it became evident that the input gear in a typical eAxle experiences the most rapid temperature increase in Loss lubrication conditions. This report presents a means to minimize the impact on transmission efficiency and improve the lubrication environment, validated through visualizations using high-speed cameras and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis coupling airflow and oil flow.


Cool System, Lasting Power - an Outstanding E-Powertrain Meets MX Dirt Track

Thomas Arnold・Jan Böhme・Matthias Krause・Mirko Leesch・Masataka Aoki (IAV)

The E-Powertrain development is a balancing between power, range and weight. Motocross (MX) racing requires a holistic system approach that redefines current development limits. A key innovation technology is the direct phase-change cooling of the E-motor and the power electronics, which allows a significant increase in continuous power without thermal power reduction. Combined with a replaceable, immersion-cooled lithium-ion battery and a motorcycle weight on a par with a 450cc four-stroke, a minimum 35-minute run time on a dirt track (race conditions) is a reality. This article details the design, integration and thermal management of a new E-powertrain for a race-tested prototype motorcycle.


Development of Low-Loss Technology using Continuous Wave Winding

Makoto Ito・Tetsuya Suto (Hitachi)・Akeshi Takahashi (Hitachi Astemo)

We are developing a small and lightweight direct-drive system to realize in-wheel EVs. This drive system aims to improve the torque density of the motor by making the stator larger in diameter, thinner and flatter. In this presentation, we will report the concept of a low-loss technology using a continuous wave winding structure with a flat cross-section coil as a key technology.


Development of High-Density Coil Mounting Technology by Beam Welding

Tetsuya Suto・Makoto Ito (Hitachi)・Akeshi Takahashi (Hitachi Astemo)

We are developing a small and lightweight direct-drive system towards realization in-wheel EVs. In this drive system, the torque density of the motor is improved by flattening the stator with a large diameter and thin thickness. In this presentation, we report the concept and prototype results of high-density mounting technology using flat section coil and beam welding, which are key technologies.

  • Session No.58 xEV III (OS)
  • May 24Room G301+G30215:20-16:35
  • Chair: Osamu Shimizu (The University of Tokyo)
The newest energy charging system, energy transfer system, system concept, and technologies of BEV, HEV, PHEV, and FCV (However, FC and their accessories are focused on in another session) systems or components that relate drive performance are discussed in this session. It also includes infrastructure, V2G, PV, energy exchange systems, and so on.
Electric Drive Technology Committee
Osamu Shimizu (The University of Tokyo), Takashi Majima (IHI Measurement), Shintaro Oshio (Nissan Motor)
No. Title・Author (Affiliation)

Pack2Pack Battery Testing
-Innovative Process for Cost-Effective Investigation of High-Voltage Batteries-

Karsten Mueller・Joerg Mueller・Sven Hoenicke (IAV)

The high-voltage batteries used in current vehicles play a key role in product development. A major cost driver in the development of energy storage systems are the very extensive functional and endurance tests. To limit the costs of the test infrastructure, it makes sense to test several batteries in parallel.
The article presents a new, energy-efficient battery test center. The following aspects are dealt with in particular:
-Simulations to define the requirements profile
-New test infrastructure, mode of operation and safety concept
-Innovative energy management to reduce energy costs
-Evaluation against state-of-the-art solutions for testing batteries


Topology Optimization of Cooling Plates for Electric Vehicles
-A Strategy for Rollbonded Cooling Plates-

Frederik Schewe (Mubea Rollbonding Products)・Takehiko Tsukamoto (Mubea Japan)・Joerg Neubrand (Mubea KG)・Ali Elham (University of Southampton)

Battery thermal management plays an important role for the electrification of vehicles. For realization of such systems sheet metal cooling plates with internal channel structures which are passed by a fluid are common. The most innovative technology to produce such cooling plates is Rollbonding as it offers unmatched design freedom for channel structures and a competitive cost structure. For the design of channel patterns conflicting thermal and hydraulic targets must be considered while ensuring manufacturability. The authors present a topology optimization strategy that take these challenges into account and demonstrate the feasibility by application on an exemplary cooling plate.


Battery Health Monitoring for Enhanced Electrical Vehicle Performance
-Integrating Data Analytics, Modeling Techniques and Anomaly Detection-

Nikolaus Keuth・Gerhard Schagerl・Alwin Tuschkan (AVL List)

Battery electric vehicles (BEVs) are becoming established as sustainable mobility solutions. However, there is still considerable potential for optimization in the development process of electric drives, especially the battery system. Advanced data analysis, using field data and data from the development phase, provides valuable support for design decisions. AVL introduces data-driven methods and tools that contribute to product quality assurance and significantly enhance development efficiency.

  • Session No.59 MBD Guaranteed for Model Distribution Conforming to International StandardsStandard I -Support Technology for Digital Validation and Visualization of Carbon Footprint- (OS)
  • May 24Room G3039:30-11:35
  • Chair: Hideto Noyama (Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Thermal Systems)
To realize MBD including digital validation and visualization of carbon footprint (CFP) practically, model development and distribution systems which ensure compatibility are important and they need a standard. The investigating committee on development & distribution of models by international standard description of JSAE has been investigated such a system mainly based on IEC61691-1 and IEC61691-6 (VHDL-AMS) and has been built a cloud computing environment. This presentation aims to make MBD a support technology for further innovation through collaboration between different organizations.
Model Development and Distribution by International Standard Description Committee
Toshiji Kato (Doshisha University), Kimitoshi Tsuji (Digital Twins), Junichi Ichihara (AZAPA), Osamu Seya (TechnoPro)
No. Title・Author (Affiliation)

[Keynote Address] MBD Guaranteed for Compatibility and Distribution by International Standard: General Remarks
-Support Technology for Digital Validation and Carbon Footprint-

Toshiji Kato (Doshisha University)・Kimitoshi Tsuji (Digital Twins)・Masahiro Okamura (JSOL)

To realize MBD including digital validation and visualization of carbon footprint (CFP) practically, model development and distribution systems that ensure compatibility are important and they need a standard. The investigating committee on the development & distribution of models by the international standard description of JSAE has investigated such a system mainly based on IEC61691-1 and IEC61691-6 (VHDL-AMS) and has built a cloud computing environment. This presentation aims to make MBD a support technology for further innovation through collaboration between different organizations.


Trajectory of the Activities of the Model-Based Development Technology Sector Committee Based on international Standard Description

Junichi Ichihara (AZAPA)

Model-Based Development Technology Committee with International Standard Descriptions has been working for the past 10 years. This report looks back on our activities to date and describes what kind of deliverables we have produced.


Initiatives for Virtual Testing using Digital Twins and Digital Authentication using it
-Comprehensive CO2 Reduction and New Manufacturing System-

Kimitoshi Tsuji (Digital Twins)・Toshiji Kato (Doshisha University)・Tsunehiro Saito (AGC)・Masahiro Okamura (JSOL)

Digital data distribution in cyberspace is becoming the backbone of industry due to its overwhelming convenience, and its reliability has become even more important than physical data. Certification through physical testing, which ensures reliability in manufacturing, is reaching its limits due to reproducibility and the diversity of conditions. Therefore, in this paper, we discuss certification through virtual testing and its applicability to comprehensive CO2 reduction, etc.


Study and Proposal on OCC for Automotive Glass using EV Model (First Report)

Tsunehiro Saito (AGC)・Kimitoshi Tsuji (Digital Twins)

OCC (Off-Cycle Credit) is an important credit regulation for CO2. Automotive glass credits have a high value in the U.S. OCC list, but this value is calculated for parking based on Tts (ISO13837) and does not take driving into account. In the first report, we report the results of OCC study that takes driving into account using EV model.


VHDL-AMS Modeling in CAN FD Network Validation

Kan Yamagishi・Makoto Mizuno・Naoto Sakurazawa (Myway Plus)

In the design of in-vehicle networks, simulation with VHDL-AMS models, which can handle both digital and analog signals, is an effective approach to overcome problems in the early stages of development. Here we show an actual example of creating a VHDL-AMS testbench for the high frequency CAN FD.

  • Session No.60 MBD Guaranteed for Model Distribution Conforming to International StandardsStandard II -Support Technology for Digital Validation and Visualization of Carbon Footprint- (OS)
  • May 24Room G30312:35-15:15
  • Chair: Osamu Seya (TechnoPro)
To realize MBD including digital validation and visualization of carbon footprint (CFP) practically, model development and distribution systems which ensure compatibility are important and they need a standard. The investigating committee on development & distribution of models by international standard description of JSAE has been investigated such a system mainly based on IEC61691-1 and IEC61691-6 (VHDL-AMS) and has been built a cloud computing environment. This presentation aims to make MBD a support technology for further innovation through collaboration between different organizations.
Model Development and Distribution by International Standard Description Committee
Toshiji Kato (Doshisha University), Kimitoshi Tsuji (Digital Twins), Junichi Ichihara (AZAPA), Osamu Seya (TechnoPro)
No. Title・Author (Affiliation)

Circuit Analysis Method using Coupled Electrical and Mechanical 1D Models in Collaboration with Tier 1 and Tier 2 Suppliers

Masashi Inaba (DENSO)・Hiroki Nakamizo・Wataru Hijikata (Tokyo Institute of Technology)・Takao Egami (Toshiba Electronic Devices & Storage)・Daisaku Mukaiyama (Rubycon)・Yoshinori Aruga (KOA)・Hiroki Takahara・Hideaki Fujita (Tokyo Institute of Technology)・Takuya Shinoda・Keita Omi (DENSO)

In recent years, the market's changing requirements for electrification have accelerated the need to shorten the ECU development period. As a solution, collaboration between Tier 1 and Tier 2 suppliers using MBD based on an Electrical and mechanical coupled 1D model has been attracting attention. In this experiment, we analyzed the operation of actuator drive circuits and calculated ECU heat generation using a model shared among suppliers.


Effects of the Actuator Behavior due to the Low-Temperature Characteristics of the Aluminum Electrolytic Capacitors

Daisaku Mukaiyama (Rubycon/Nagoya University)・Masanari Ueda (Siemens EDA Japan)・Yoshinori Aruga (KOA)・Masashi Inaba・Kazunari Hashimoto (DENSO)・Haruki Takei (Siemens)・Takao Egami (AC Technologies)・Hideki Jonokuchi (Nagoya Institute of Technology)・Takuya Shinoda (DENSO)

The aluminum electrolytic capacitor impedance is increased exponentially in a low-temperature range. Thus, we guess that the lower temperature limit should exist for applications that use aluminum electrolytic capacitors. In this study, we researched the lower temperature limit of the Actuator (Model) with the capacitor model which contains the temperature characteristics.


Analysis of Actuator Drive Circuits and Passive Component Operation through Tier 1 and Tier 2 Collaboration using MBD

Yoshinori Aruga (KOA)・Masashi Inaba (DENSO)・Masanari Ueda (Siemens)・Daisaku Mukaiyama (Rubycon)・Hiroki Nakamizo (Tokyo Institute of Technology)・Naoto Taoka (IDAJ)・Haruki Takei (Siemens)・Takao Egami (Toshiba Electronic Devices & Storage)・Hideki Jounokuchi (Nagoya Institute of Technology)・Takuya Shinoda (DENSO)

In the thermal design of in-vehicle electrical equipment that is becoming smaller and more sophisticated, it is important to consider not only semiconductors but also the small components (resistors, capacitors, etc.) in their peripheral circuits. This report describes a case study of a multi-domain analysis of a specific actuator (circuit/mechanical) and drive circuit (circuit/thermal). In addition, the report analyzes the operating waveform and temperature rise of the small components (resistors) for certain operating conditions.


Examining the Operation of Actuator Drive Circuits that Improve the Accuracy of Semiconductor Models in MBD

Takao Egami (AC Technologies)・Yoshiko Ikeda (Toshiba Electoronic Devices & Storage)・Masashi Inaba・Kazunari Hashimoto (DENSO)・Daisaku Mukaiyama (Rubycon)・Yoshinori Aruga (KOA)・Masanari Ueda (SIEMENS)・Takuya Shinoda (DENSO)

MBD also requires consideration of operating limits equivalent to those of actual semiconductor devices (ICs, MOSFETs). The actuator model was driven by a circuit constructed from a highly accurate semiconductor model that takes into account detailed electrical characteristics, and the operating waveform and self-heating were analyzed.


Switching Loss Issues in High Power Inverters and a Model that Takes IGBT Structure into Account and Supports Self-Heating

Noboru Takizawa

Due to the electrification of vehicles, the increase in drive power and the miniaturization of power devices have created a need to consider heat generation at the peak value of switching loss. This peak loss and conventional loss are shown here.  Furthermore, we will present a concept for a self-heating compatible model using VHDL-AMS that takes into consideration the IGBT element structure required to improve the accuracy of switching loss.


Robust Design for Location of Thermal Interfacial Material by using MBD

Kazunari Hashimoto (DENSO)・Ryuta Yasui (Tokyo Institute of Technology)・Masashi Inaba (DENSO)・Takao Egami (AC Technologies)・Yoshinori Aruga (KOA)・Daisaku Mukaiyama (Rubycon)・Haruki Takei (Siemens)・Kazuyoshi Fushinobu (Tokyo Institute of Technology)・Takuya Shinoda・Keita Omi (DENSO)

The amount of heat generation in the electronic circuit can be calculated accurately by MBD due to putting into circulation of 1D model.
The balance of heat generation in the each electronic component will be changed from operating condition of ECU.
So far we took the logical sum from each worst condition.
We'll explain robust design for location of thermal interfacial material under some operating conditions.

  • Session No.61 Effect of Automobile Emission on Atmospheric Environment (OS)
  • May 24Room G3049:30-11:10
  • Chair: Kotaro Tanaka (Ibaraki University)
Particulate Matter Measurement & Evaluation Committee
Kotaro Tanaka (Ibaraki University), Hiroe Watanabe (Nissan Motor)
No. Title・Author (Affiliation)

Development of VOC Adsorption and Odor-Eliminating Filler Derived from Scraped Sea Urchin Shells

Mizuho Nishida・Shinnosuke Okada・Toyokazu Endo (Kasai Kogyo)

In coastlines worldwide, there's an abnormal proliferation of low-edible portions of sea urchins, leading to 'sea urchin barrens'. Some companies are attempting to capture and farm these sea urchins. However, the issue arises from the shells becoming waste after extracting the edible parts, leading to concerns about their disposal as industrial waste. This paper introduces the development of repurposing sea urchin shells as functional fillers.


An Analysis of Diesel RDE NOx Emission using Driver's Accelerator Pedal Index and Distribution

Yoon Woo Lee・Ki Hyung Joo・Jay Hwee Lee・Jong Ik Chun (Hyundai Motor)

In this study, we developed the driver's accelerator pedal index that can represent the driver's manipulation of the accelerator pedal, and analyzed the correlation between the index and RDE NOx EM. In addition, we analyzed the distribution of the index through big data of actual customers so that RDE development criteria can be set.


Consideration Regarding Drag Torque Reduction of Disc Brakes

Takashi Shimizu・Naoya Miyahara・Akinori Hirashima・Takumi Inoue (Advics)

One of the characteristics of disc brakes that contributes to fuel efficiency and electricity consumption is drag torque.
The purpose of this report is to reduce dynamic drag torque during city driving.
The factors and variations in drag torque under coast-down test were investigated.
A consideration is presented on a method for predicting drag torque and a method for designing to reduce it.


Holistic Brake Development Approach under the Impact of EU7

Christof Danner・Christian Wanek-Ruediger・Sampsa Martikainen (AVL List)

Non exhaust eissions are clearly one of the focal points for the upcoming Euro 7 legislation. In real life, the final emission factor as the ultimate result of a test in influenced by inaccuracies of numerous parts of the measurement system as well as additional influences of the unit under test. This study shows these influences of the systems inherent sources if imperfection on resukt quality based on theroretical relations, simulations, measurment results and experience gathered during productive brake emission testing. In addition this study will show influencing factors out of the brake developer view, how brake development can influence brake emission factors.

  • Session No.62 Fuels, Lubricants and Tribology That Contribute to Carbon Neutrality (OS)
  • May 24Room G30414:55-18:00
  • Chair: Kohei Katori (Idemitsu Kosan)
Carbon-neutral fuels such as biofuels and e-fuels have attracted attention as automotive fuels toward the realization of a carbon-neutral society. In addition, technologies related to lubrication and tribology have contributed greatly to improving not only the thermal efficiency of internal combustion engines but also the efficiency of electric vehicles. Thus, technologies related to fuels, lubricants, and tribology are one of the fundamental technologies to realize a carbon-neutral society. This organized session provides an opportunity to call for presentations on the latest topics related to fuels, lubricants, and tribology, regardless of the vehicle type such as ICE, HEV, BEV, etc., in order to discuss the state of fuels, lubricants, and tribology in the future automotive society.
Fuel & Lubricant Committee
Daisuke Kawano (Osaka Sangyo University), Kohei Katori (Idemitsu Kosan), Shinya Kudo (SUBARU), Kyohei Yamaguchi (Kokushikan University)
No. Title・Author (Affiliation)

The Role of Hydrogen in the Future Energy & Mobility System

Juergen Rechberger・Bernd Reiter・Alexander Schenk (AVL List)

The energy transition to a net zero CO2 society is widely recognized as a monumental challenge. It is widely accepted that hydrogen and hydrogen derivates will play an important role. A study will be presented which shows an energy scenario for Austria 2050, where all end-use sectors like mobility, industry and buildings are decarbonized. This study gives a very good indication for the future hydrogen demand of industrialized countries. Additionally, technologies to produce hydrogen and hydrogen derivates with up to 90% efficiency will be presented and 2 key use cases of hydrogen will be discussed: industry and heavy duty trucks.


Effects of Operating Conditions and Cylinder Wall Temperature Differences on the Proportion of Condensed Water in Lubricating Oil in Premixed Hydrogen Engine

Yuji Mihara・Yuya Hirose・Masakuni Oikawa・Takumi Iwata・Dengda Zhu (Tokyo City University)・Michiyasu Owashi (Motora)

The operating conditions of a premixed hydrogen engine, the cylinder wall temperature, and the lubricating oil temperature were varied between 20°C and 80°C, and the proportion of condensed water in the lubricating oil was investigated. As a result, in motoring, the water percentage in lubricating oil remained unchanged regardless of the wall temperature and oil temperature. On the other hand, in the case of combustion, if the wall temperature is 40°C, the steam produced by combustion condenses near the wall surface and gets mixed into the oil film attached to the piston cylinder, which increases significantly as the wall temperature.


Development of Ammonia Mixed Combustion Engine for Automobiles

Minoru Tsuda・Masateru Ishida・Tsuyoshi Ihara・Dai Yamanishi・Kazuyuki Maeda (National Fisheries University)

To clarify the combustion characteristics and DPF performance when ammonia is used in a small high-speed engine, 214kW/3101min-1 diesel engine with a DPF was operated using a fuel made from a mixture of light oil and ammonia water, and the engine performance and characteristics of NOx, PM, and DPF were analyzed. As a result, it was clarified that ammonia can also be used in small high-speed engines.


Experimental Study of Lignin Fuels for Marine Engines

Motoki Terauchi・Simon Friborg Mortensen・Anders Ivarsson (Technical University of Denmark)

A sustainable fuel composed of ethanol and lignin, the second most abundant biomass produced as a by-product and mostly wasted, was evaluated experimentally in a small-bore CI engine. This fuel is mainly considered relevant for large marine engines designed to tolerate a wide range of fuels. However, special considerations are still required for this fuel due to the composition of distinct substances of extremely different viscosities and boiling point temperatures. Systematic variations of engine parameters were used to investigate the applicability of the fuel for engines, with particular focus on injection properties, ignition quality and deposit formation.


Development of a Method for Quantifying the Cause of Carbon Deposit Formation in Gasoline Engines

Shouta Tobe・Akihiro Suzuki (SUBARU)・Satoshi Yoshizawa・Takahide Horiguchi (UBE Scientific Analysis Laboratory)

The purpose is to analyze the carbon deposits in the gasoline engine and identify the cause of their formation.
In this study, we construct a method to quantify the ratio of gasoline and oil that causes formation by combining analytical methods, and we report the results.


The Development of JASO GLV-2 – Next Generation Low Viscosity Automotive Gasoline Engine Oils Specification – Part1

Noriyuki Matsui・Satoru Yoshida (ENEOS)・Kazuo Yamamori (Toyota Motor)

Lowering the viscosity of engine oil is effective in reducing CO2 emissions from internal combustion engines. “JASO GLV-1” was established in 2019, and to promote the spread of low-viscosity oils further, Task Force (TF), composed of mainly in the Japanese automobile and petroleum industries, was established and developed “JASO GLV-2”, the next-generation low viscosity standard. This standard maintains the high temperature viscosity of SAE 16 and SAE 20 to ensure oil pressure and reliability, and improves fuel efficiency equivalent to that of “JASO GLV-1”.


The Development of JASO GLV-2 – Next Generation Low Viscosity Automotive Gasoline Engine Oils Specification – Part2
-Volatility and Shear Stability Test Procedure-

Kazuo Yamamori・Satoshi Hirano・Yuta Uematsu・Shunsuke Mori (Toyota Motor)・Satoru Yoshida・Noriyuki Matsui (ENEOS)・Kazuteru Kotaka・Isao Tanaka (Chevron Japan)・Jo Martinez (Chevron Oronite)

The next-generation low-viscosity oil, defined as JASO GLV-2 Specification, maintains the high-temperature viscosity of SAE 16 and SAE 20 to ensure oil pressure and reliability, while improving fuel economy at the same time.
Potential concerns are the increase of volatility and the decrease of finished oil shear stability due to the lower base oil viscosity and the increase of viscosity modifier treat level respectively. Two laboratory tests have been developed based on existing test equipment to improve their correlation with actual firing engines for better assessments of these performance aspects.

  • Session No.63 Vehicle Development III
  • May 24Room G314+G3159:30-11:35
  • Chair: Hiroshi Kuniyuki (Suwa University of Science)
No. Title・Author (Affiliation)

FMI-Based Virtual ECU Interface Structure

Eunhyung Cho・Seokjin Jang・Subin Jung・Kangyoung Lee・Seongho Han (Hyundai AutoEver)

The automotive industry is experiencing an increase in the diversity and complexity of vehicle functions due to the rapid growth of software. Accordingly, virtual verification is emerging as an effective method for developing and verifying vehicle ECUs.
Virtual verification begins by virtualizing the ECU. And in the development of the virtual ECU, it is essential to define an input/ouput interface to communicate effectively with a simulator or other models.
This paper proposes an interface structure for each AUTOSAR module in FMI(Functional Mock-up Interface)-based virtual ECU and introduces use cases of the proposed method.


Virtual Memory Development for Simulation of Diagnostic Communication in Virtual ECU

Kangyoung Lee・Seongho Han・Eunhyung Cho・Subin Jung・Seokjin Jang (Hyundai AutoEver)

This study covers the utilization of virtual ECUs through memory simulations as a modern method for the development and testing of vehicle control systems. Vehicle diagnostic and communication functions based on Unified Diagnostic Services (UDS) and Universal Measurement and Calibration Protocol (XCP) functions are an important part of modern vehicles. However, in order to effectively develop and test these functions, it is necessary to be able to accurately simulate memory behavior and interaction in a real ECUs.

In this paper, we introduce virtual memory simulation methods for implementing vehicle diagnosis and XCP behavior in virtual ECUs, as well as usecase for verification.


A Study on the Cleaning System of the Automated Driving Sensor

Jongmin Park・Nakkyong Kong・Gyuwon Han・Jinhee Lee (Hyundai Motor)・Jongwook Lee (Dy Auto)・Minwook Park (Dy Essys)

Fully automated driving Competition for technology development is intensifying. Indeed, leading autonomous driving companies have proposed the development of fully autonomous vehicles, they are operating robo-taxi in various regions to accumulate cloud-based big data for fully autonomous driving. In order to implement fully automated driving technology, which has recently become an issue, it is particularly necessary to expand the Operational Design Domain, and the importance of sensor cleaning technology has been highlighted. This research relates to washer cleaning technology among sensor cleaning technologies, and describes the optimization process of technology development and the acquisition of know-how through actual vehicle evaluation.


3rd Generation Power Trunk Lid System

YongHyuck Im・KeunSoo Kim・KyeongJun Lim・SuJin Jung・MinHyung Byun・JaeHoon Chung (Hyundai Motor)・SungTae Hong・MoonBae Tak・DooJung Kim (PHA Automotive)

The power trunk lid system is a technology that can increase customer convenience by automatically opening and closing the trunk. Due to the trend toward electrification of vehicles and high customer needs, both Hyundai and other competitors are currently expanding it. In large and semi-large sized cars with existing power trunks, a coil spring is used as a mechanism to open and close the trunk. So existing power trunks were developed based on this coil spring.
But when applied to mid-sized and semi-mid-sized cars that use torsion bars, they must be changed to springs, which increases the cost and weight, reduces the trunk space. Therefore, in order to overcome the limitations of the existing system, the first goal of the 3rd generation power trunk lid system was to simplify the structure and develop a new mechanism that can be applied to the torsion bar


Life Cycle Assessment of Automotive Parts using Aluminum Scrap Material

Hiroko Kashima・Yasutaka Okubo・Sumiyo Ezaki・Junya Naito (Kobe Steel)・Hatsumi Yoshino (Kobelco Business Partners)

Generally, the materials and structures of automobile parts have been selected for performance improvement and cost reduction. However, it is assumed that in the future, we need to use recycled materials in order to reduce environmental impact.
Therefore, we investigated an evaluation method for the environmental impact of the entire lifecycle when applying recycled aluminum to automobile panel parts, and compared automotive parts made of different materials.

  • Session No.64 Vehicle Development IV
  • May 24Room G314+G31512:35-14:40
  • Chair: Toshiaki Sakurai (former Iwakimeisei University)
No. Title・Author (Affiliation)

Development of All-In-One Virtual Application Process for Efficient R&H Performance Development

Jinhee Lee (Hyundai Motor)

In this paper, a new virtual application process called R&H All-In-One Application Process is proposed. This process is developed to achieve more efficient R&H performance development. This process consists of 3 sub-process. First one is the CarMaker model generating process based on CAT data that provides reliable vehicle model from SPMD and inertia database rapidly. Second process is the CarMaker design of experiment automation analysis process and model based benchmarking process. This process provides the environment for analyzing the effect of R&H performance on changes in the combination of the vehicle parameter sets and test conditions but also, contribution analysis through systematic separation method. The last one is the Handling/Steering feel test database with integrated analysis platform. Through proposed process, it is expected that engineers related R&H performance development can conduct efficient virtual activity above a certain level.


Simultaneous Identification of Spring Constant and Torsional Friction in the Frequency Region Higher than the Resonance Frequency of a Two-Inertia Resonance System

Tetsuya Yada・Toshimasa Miyazaki・Padron Juan (Nagaoka University of Technology)・Yoshihisa Hojo (Toyo Denki Seizo)

In multi-inertia resonance systems, accurate parameter acquisition is important for proper modeling and vibration control. In this paper, we propose a method to simultaneously identify the spring constant and torsional friction in the frequency range higher than the resonance frequency of a two-inertia resonance system. The effectiveness of the proposed method is confirmed by simulation and experiments.


Development of Drivability Sensory Evaluation with Machine Learning and Quantification of Knowledge

Takafumi Asano・Kosuke Tsuchiya・Kenji Kashiwakura・Takuma Kawaguchi・Haruki Shimura・Ryosuke Atarashi・Takashi Kaneko・Ryoya Kanahori (SUBARU)

The evaluation of the combination of complex driving operations and vehicle behavior by expert drivers is necessary to enhance drivability performance. In this study, an evaluation method using Machine Learning developed to reduce extensive testing efforts and share knowledge of experts. Furthermore, the method was using engine bench system. This utilization involved predicting acceleration from ECU data, conducting evaluations independent of the vehicle.


Conversion Method of Vibration Condition using Vibration Energy

Tomoya Shimomura・Fumikazu Matsuda・Toshikatsu Hatakeyama (Nissan Motor)・Katsuhiko Nakamura・Tatsuki Okunaga (IMV)

The 6-degree-of-freedom (6DOF: 3 translation and 3 rotation) vibration test is suitable for reproducing vibrations in a real environment.
However, there are only few shakers capable of performing a 6 DOF vibration test.
To conduct vibration tests using a single-axis vibration shaker, we developed a method to convert vibration conditions from 6 DOF to single-axis vibration utilizing vibration energy in addition to considering fatigue damage.


AI-Powered Vehicle Concept Development
-Disruptive Method to Reduce Time-to-Market and Select Right Vehicle Architecture & Technology-

Mario Oswald・Joerg Schlager (AVL List)・Kisu Lee・Sungho An (Hyundai Motor)・Stefan Kellner・Nathan De Kerpel (AVL List)

This publication covers a comprehensive methodology based on AI (artificial intelligence) presenting a paradigm shift in the selection of the right technology for all vehicle systems. The overall goal is to not only meet but also balance vehicle-level targets, setting the stage for a more streamlined and efficient development process. The center of this innovative approach are multi-layered and cascaded neural networks, which act as powerful tools enabling precise and simultaneous prediction of vehicle attributes like energy efficiency, range, charging, performance, vehicle dynamics and driveability. Furthermore, these networks even provide insights for the optimization of geometric vehicle architecture and crash.

  • Session No.65 Vehicle Development V
  • May 24Room G314+G31515:20-16:10
  • Chair: Toshiaki Sakurai (Tokyo City University)
No. Title・Author (Affiliation)

A Study on the Improvement of Startability and Fuel Efficiency of Saddle-Type Fuel Tank

Jung Hoon Park・Keun soo Kim (Hyundai Motor)

The saddle-type fuel tank has two jet pumps, which tend to have a disadvantage in fuel efficiency and startibility because the jet pump continuously consumes fuel.
We propose a system to compensate for the weakness of these saddle fuel tanks.
In addition, it shall be developed to ensure that performance is not impaired by optimizing the change points compared to the existing system and the performance of the proposed system is to be verified through the various vehicle tests.


Internal Combustion Engine Control of Hybrid System for Small Competition Vehicles
-Experimental Consideration on Installation of Throttle-by-Wire System to Improve Response-

Hayato Yamada・Yusuke Ebashi・Ikkei Kobayashi・Jumpei Kuroda・Daigo Uchino (Tokai University)・Kazuki Ogawa (Aichi University of Technology)・Mohamad Bin Peeie Heerwan (University Malaysia Pahang)・Hideaki Kato・Takayoshi Narita (Tokai University)

Hybrid vehicles are powered by an internal combustion engine and an electric motor. This can improve not only fuel economy but also dynamic performance, and a high-performance powertrain can be considered. However, precise control is required. The electric motor is easy to control, but the internal combustion engine is difficult to control with conventional wire systems. Therefore, we propose a system control using an electronic

  • Session No.66 New Technologies for Advanced Measurements and Diagnostics (OS)
  • May 24Room G316+G3179:30-11:35
  • Chair: Atsushi Shimada (Hitachi)
Measurement & Diagnostics Committee
Atsushi Shimada (Hitachi), Kotaro Tanaka (Ibaraki University), Masaaki Kato (SUBARU)
No. Title・Author (Affiliation)

Analysis of High-Frequency Noise Due to In-Cylinder Resonance in Diesel Engines

Masanori Ishikawa・Kiyoshi Iwade (SOKEN)・Takashi Kawachi・Tsutomu Umehara・Yoshiyuki Murai (Toyota Industries)

Until now, noise reduction measures have been taken mainly in the frequency range of 2 to 3 kHz with regard to radiated noise from diesel engines. As a result, a high-frequency random sound around 5 kHz has become apparent, and we will focus on this and study countermeasures.
In this study, we clarified the relationship between in-cylinder resonance, which is the cause of high-frequency noise, and cabin noise. In order to investigate the transmission path from the resonance to the radiated sound, we established a high-speed measurement technique for piston vibration using a telemeter. This report describes the details.


Performance Evaluation of EV Traction Batteries via Impedance Measurement

Takumi Mori・Nozomu Teranishi (Hioki E.E.)・Toshimichi Takahashi (Meidensha)

A method for directly measuring the voltage and impedance of EV traction batteries through the rapid (DC) charging port is reported. The principles and verification results of this approach are presented. A methodology for assessing and managing battery state, based on physical quantities obtained through this method, is proposed with the aim of ensuring secure long-term EV usage and maximizing the value of the batteries, thereby contributing to the realization of a sustainable circular society.


Implementation of Virtual Sensors for Virtualization of Wheel Force Transducers to Evaluate Actual Use of Customer Vehicles

Martin Zeller・Kahlid Bouazi・Daniel Dilmetz (COMPREDICT)・Akihito Itakura・Mitsuo Harino (Suzuki Motor)

This paper presents a joint project between COMPREDICT and Suzuki Japan using Virtual Sensor technology to improve vehicle development. The goal of implementing Virtual Sensors is to enhance the understanding of the difference between assumptions made during the development process and the actual usage of customer vehicles in the field, in order to optimize the dimensioning of vehicle components. By implementing Virtual Sensors, Suzuki's mobility portfolio will be made more efficient, safer and sustainable.


A Strategy of Digital Transformation for Vehicle Development Standard using Artificial Intelligence

Sang In Park・Yool Koo Kim・Ji Hye Park (Hyundai Motor)

The vehicle development standard is a document that is the backbone of vehicle development and describes the requirements for various performance. Data that can be quantitatively quantified such as tensile strength, and elongation guarantee the objectivity of judgment results. However, data such as color difference, and texture that depend on human qualitative senses cannot guarantee the objectivity of judgment results and standards. In this paper, we propose a detailed digital transformation strategy for vehicle development standards using artificial intelligence developed for the purpose of regulating the quantitative performance of image-type data, which is subject to human visual judgment.


Outline of JASO E018 Part-2, which Standardizes the Performance Requirements of a chassis Dynamometer Test System and its Method of reproducing Actual Driving Conditions
-Tire Slip Behavior Evaluation Method and its Application to Tire Slip Control Measures in Tests using a Chassis Dynamometer-

Shohei Nakagawa (Honda Motor)・Akira Noda (Japan Automobile Transport Technology Accociation)・Hisakazu Suzuki (NALTEC)・Isamu Inoue (Ono Sokki)・Yasuhiro Ogawa (Horiba)・Toshinobu Furuta (Meidensha)・Hideyuki Kuba (Mazda)・Kenji Sato (Toyota Motor)・Yasuhito Takemura (Daihatsu Motor)・Masato Taniwaki (Suzuki Motor)・Noriaki Nakate (Japan Automobile Transport Technology Accociation)・Masaki Naruke (JARI)・Takayuki Fumoto (Mitsubishi Motors)・Keita Mori (SUBARU)・Keiichi Masutani (Nissan Motor)

JASO E018 standard regulates control requirements and performance evaluation methods of chassis dynamometers for evaluating fuel consumption, power consumption, and exhaust emissions during actual driving and for reproducing a wide variety of driving conditions on test bench. Part-2 had newly standardized evaluation method of slip characteristics between rollers and tires that occur under rapid acceleration and deceleration conditions. In this paper, reports various requirements and their evaluation methods, also the objective.

  • Session No.67 Advanced Technologies for Automotive Body Structure I (OS)
  • May 24Room G316+G31712:35-14:15
  • Chair: Yoshitaka Kuriage (Suzuki Motor)
Structural Strength Committee, Structural Frame-work Engineering Committee, Fatigue Design and Evaluation Committee
Yoshihiko Uematsu (Gifu University), Yoshitaka Kuriage (Suzuki Motor), Atsushi Mikuni (Toyota Motor), Hiroshi Kitano (Nissan Motor)
No. Title・Author (Affiliation)

Fatigue Strength Evaluation of CFRP Bonding Structure by Urethane Adhesive

Toshiaki Nakamaru (Nissan Motor)・Masayuki Osada・Hiroyuki Akebono・Atsushi Sugeta (Hiroshima University)・Yoshiki Yokote (Hino Motors)・Takamitsu Nishiya (Isuzu Moters)・Tomoyuki Kita (Press Kogyo)・Noriyuki Kawai (Mazda)・Takuya Yuasa (Nissan Motor)・Takeshi Ogawa (Aoyama Gakuin University)

To prevent Global warming caused by CO2, multi-material automotive structures including CFRP are expanding due to the vehicle weight reduction. Therefore, “CFRP joining Working Group” of Fatigue Reliability Committee in JSAE is studying CFRP structure with the bonding joint. In this report, the fatigue strength of urethane adhesive joint is studied by lap shear joints and specimens simulated car body structure. As results, fatigue properties such as crack initiation and propagation at adhesive joint were clarified. Furthermore, the criteria of fatigue strength were studied to evaluate the adhesive joint of body structures.


A Development of Power Door Chinch Mechanism System for B-pillar Less Side Structure

Yongdae Seo・Hoosang Park・Jaehan Park (Hyundai Motor)・Byungdae Joeng・Taewon Kim・Dosik Moon・Hyeonyeong Park (PHA)

It has been reborn as a space where users can enjoy various activities beyond simple means of transportation by freely relaxing from the labor of driving. Recently, a concept car with various types of opening and closing systems has been released in accordance with the changing times.
The present invention relates to a door locking system of a vehicle without a B-pillar among various door opening/closing structures. In the case of a general door, a latch is disposed inside the door and a striker is disposed in the B-pillar structure to implement a door opening/closing function. However, since it is impossible to configure a striker in a vehicle without a B-pillar, latches and strikers are disposed above and below.


Contribution of Vehicle Structural Components to Passenger Compartment Deceleration in Car-to-Car Frontal Collisions

Kyoka Ota・Yuqing Zhao・Koji Mizuno (Nagoya University)・Kei Nagasaka (Suzuki Motor)

In a vehicle-to-vehicle collision, the components of own car as well as those of the partner car have a significant effect on car deceleration. In this study, this effect was quantified using the rates of change in kinetic energy and internal energy of components of both cars. Futhermore, the contribution of each component to compartment deceleration was examined with varying car types, collision configurations and velocities.


Development of Collision Energy Absorption Member using Fiber-Reinforced Composite Material

Atsuhi Yokoyama (Kyouto Institute of Technology)・Asao Koike (Isuzu Advanced Engineering Center)・Reika Akita・Mirai Sueki (ITOCHU Techno-Solutions)・Kentaro Sakota (JSOL)・Koji Kawamura (Mitsubishi Chemical Advanced Materials)

We have shown that it is possible to create a lightweight and highly energy-absorbing part by creating a crash box, which is a collision energy absorbing member, using fiber-reinforced composite materials. We are elucidating the fracture mechanism by experimentally verifying the compressive fracture behavior of FRP materials. Using image processing technology, we will elucidate the fracture behavior caused by the heterogeneity unique to composite materials and measure the anisotropic material constants. Based on this knowledge, we will develop an analysis method for simulating compressive fracture phenomena. The study focused on development. This report introduces the results of an investigation into the compressive fracture phenomenon of FRP and the development of a simulation method.

  • Session No.68 Advanced Technologies for Automotive Body Structure II (OS)
  • May 24Room G316+G31714:55-16:35
  • Chair: Akihiro Takezawa (Waseda University)
Structural Strength Committee, Structural Frame-work Engineering Committee, Fatigue Design and Evaluation Committee
Yoshihiko Uematsu (Gifu University), Yoshitaka Kuriage (Suzuki Motor), Atsushi Mikuni (Toyota Motor), Hiroshi Kitano (Nissan Motor)
No. Title・Author (Affiliation)

Matrix Based Design Method of the Structure for Circular Economy

Daichi Kunishi (Toyota Motor)・Ryohei Tsuruta (Toyota Central R&D Labs.)

In designing the structure which matches the circular economy society, the matrix-based methodology "DSM" enables to decide it numerically and reasonably
is introduced.


Isogeometric Analysis of Fracture Problem
-Part 2: Simulation of Ductile Crack Propagation-

Ki-ichi Furuhashi (University of Yamanashi)・Kei Nagasaka・Idemitsu Masuda (Suzuki Motor)・Mizuki Hoshino・Kyohei Noguchi (University of Yamanashi)・Yuta Yokoyama (University of Yamanashi/Diver Technology)・Hirofumi Sugiyama (University of Yamanashi)・Shigenobu Okazawa (University of Yamanashi/Diver Technology)

We propose computational procedures to treat fracture problem in automobile crash simulation by Isogeometric analysis. In this paper, as a follow-up to the first report for proposal on the geometric reproduction of ductile crack, we describe a technique for simulating ductile crack propagation under mechanical condition. Compared to tensile experiments, the proposed computational methods are validated.


Development of the Axisymmetric Two-Dimensional Analysis Model for Rotary Friction Welding of the Steel Cylinder on the Aluminum Plate

Tomohiko Ariyoshi (ATORI CAE)

In the development of the automobile body-strucures, welding of the studs bolt to the aluminum member is one of the important procedures. For the welding of the both members, Rotary Friction Welding method can be utilized. For the efficient analyses for the Rotary Friction Welding phenomena, we developed the axisymmetric two-dimensional analysis model.


Strength Estimation for Resin Considering Joint by Numerical Simulation

Hirofumi Sugiyama・Ryousuke Yuzawa (University of Yamanashi)・Shigenobu Okazawa (University of Yamanashi/Diver Technology)

Estimating the strength of the same material or multi-material components is necessary for multi-material. Previous research examined material models for fiber-reinforced plastics using multiscale simulation. In this study, we try to consider the joint by using numerical techniques to predict the strength of mono-material or multi-material by numerical simulation. Some representative examples are shown to verify the proposed results.

  • Session No.69 CN Technology for Gas Engine (OS)
  • May 24Room G401+G4029:30-11:35
  • Chair: Tsutomu Kikuchi (Nissan Motor)
Discuss the performance and practicality of using gas fuels such as natural gas, hydrogen, LPG, DME, biogas, and ammonia in engines, as well as CN technology for gas fuels.
Gaseous-Fuel Engine Committee
Yasuo Moriyoshi (Chiba University), Tsutomu Kikuchi (Nissan Motor), Takahiro Sako (Osaka Gas), Kenta Suzuki (Isuzu Motors)
No. Title・Author (Affiliation)

Development of Low-Pressure Direct Injection Hydrogen Engine Based on Numerical Analysis of Mixture Formation Characteristics by LES

Nobuhiro Shimmura (Tokyo City University/Kawasaki Heavy Industries)・Kotaro Hata (Tokyo City University)・Masakuni Oikawa (Tokyo City University/HEET)・Sekai Miyamoto (Kawasaki Heavy Industries)・Yuji Mihara (Tokyo City University/HEET)・Yasuo Takagi (Tokyo City University)

In direct injection hydrogen engine, the air-hydrogen mixture formation would be drastically changed by reducing the fuel injection pressure, and this mixture state has a great influence on the engine performance such as thermal efficiency and NOx emissions. In this study, factors that deteriorate the performance are identified and countermeasures for the improvement of the mixture state are examined by using large eddy simulation (LES), which enable to predict the unsteady mixture formation process accurately. The simulation results are compared with the actual engine test results in the same operating conditions.


Effect of Fuel Jet Specifications on Engine Performance in Lowered Injection Pressure in Direct Injection Hydrogen Engines

Kotaro Hata (Tokyo City University)・Nobuhiro Shimmura (Tokyo City University/Kawasaki Heavy Industries)・Masakuni Oikawa (Tokyo City University/HEET)・Sekai Miyamoto (Kawasaki Heavy Industries)・Yuji Mihara (Tokyo City University/HEET)・Yasuo Takagi (Tokyo City University)

In a direct hydrogen injection engine, the reduction of hydrogen supply pressure from 10 MPa to 3 MPa revealed an observable increase in NOx emission concentrations. To address this issue, the Design of Experiments method was employed to identify optimized nozzle specifications. Implementing these refined nozzle specifications resulted in the simultaneous achievement of high thermal efficiency and NOx emission concentrations below several tens of ppm.


Influences of Argon Fraction on Characteristics of H2/O2/Ar Premixed Flames

Tatsushi Nagai・Yuichi Shirayama・Mizuki Sakuma・Ekenechukwu C. Okafor・Toshiaki Kitagawa (Kyushu University)

Influences of argon fraction on the characteristics of H2/O2/Ar laminar and turbulent premixed flames were investigated by the experiments using a constant volume combustion bomb. Experiments were carried out varying the argon fraction at the equivalence ratio of 1.0. The characteristics of flames such as laminar and turbulent burning velocities were obtained.


Examining Fuel Consumption Performance of Hydrogen-Fueled Heavy Duty Vehicle on Demonstration

Kota Takanohashi・Kaname Naganuma (Kanazawa Institute of Technology)・Tadashi Enomoto・Takuya Yamaura (Flatfield)・Akemi Ito (Tokyo City University)・Yosuke Wakaki (Hokusan)・Jun Yamashita (Tonami Transportation)・Yuto Ihara (Waseda University)

Heavy duty vehicle with hydrogen fueled ICE is being tested for the purpose of evaluating the practicality, environmental friendliness and economic efficiency. In this study, the fuel consumption performance of the vehicle under real-world driving conditions are evaluated. As a results, effect of climate, driving characteristics, loaded weight and other conditions are analyzed and reported that the hydrogen fueled ICE performance is comparable to diesel heavy duty vehicles.


Optimizing Efficiency and NOx Emissions: Experimental Investigations of Hydrogen High-Pressure Direct Injection on a Heavy-Duty Single-Cylinder Research Engine

Robbert Willems・Xander Seykens・Erik Doosje・Cemil Bekdemir・Peter Van Gompel (TNO)

The H2-ICE emerges as a promising pathway for complying with upcoming heavy-duty CO2 regulations. Several concepts are being investigated, where HPDI stands out for its excellent efficiency and performance. HPDI combustion is characterized by a hydrogen diffusion flame ignited by a diesel pilot. Significant NOx formation arising from diffusive combustion limits the maximum efficiency. In this paper, use of EGR and various fueling strategies are explored to optimize NOx emissions on a 1.8L single-cylinder engine. Although peak efficiency is constrained by NOx, it is shown that >50% indicated efficiency is possible with sufficiently low NOx toward compliance with future legislation.

  • Session No.70 Research on Combination between Combustion and Fuel for CO2 Reduction (AOI Project) (OS)
  • May 24Room G401+G40212:35-15:15
  • Chair: Hidenori Kosaka (Tokyo Institute of Technology)
Energy Commiittee
So Hirano (Seijio University), Takashi Kaneko (ENEOS)
No. Title・Author (Affiliation)

[Keynote Address] Joint Research on CO2 Reduction between Petroleum Association of Japan and Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association (AOI Project 2nd Report)

Hideaki Sugano・Takashi Kaneko (ENEOS)・Takae Okamoto (Cosmo Oil)・Tatsuya Suzuki (Hino Motors)・Masato Matsuki (Honda Motor)・Hironori Shodai (Idemitsu Kosan)・Tomoaki Kakihara (Isuzu Motors)・Tsutomu Kikuchi (Nissan Motor)・Ryuichiro Kamioka・Hitoshi Hayashi・Kiyoo Hirose (Toyota Motor)

The Petroleum Association of Japan (PAJ) and the Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association (JAMA) are conducting joint research (*AOI project) aimed at reducing CO2 emissions by optimizing the combination of future engine combustion methods and future fuels in anticipation of the market around 2030. In this project, the basic research phase from FY2020 to FY2022 was successfully achieved, and the verification research phase (first stage) is currently ongoing.


Effects of Light Olefins on the Properties of Gasoline Premixed Laminar and Turbulent Flames

Takato Kataoka・Tsuyoshi Ohama・Hiroshi Maeyama・Ekenechukwu Chijioke Okafor・Toshiaki Kitagawa (Kyushu University)

Effects of light olefins on the properties of gasoline premixed laminar and turbulent flames were investigated by the experiments using a constant volume combustion chamber. The laminar burning velocity was increased and the Markstein number was decreased by the light olefin components. The ratio of the turbulent burning velocity to laminar one was increased by the light olefin components.


Evaluation of New Fuel Components and New Surrogates for Next-Generation Gasoline Development using a High-Pressure Shock Tube (Part II)

Tomohiro Hamasaki・Riku Sugiura・Ryohei Hirai・Tatsumi Ueda・Kazuo Takahashi (Sophia University)

In order to achieve short- and medium-term targets for preventing global warming, the efficiency of internal combustion engine vehicles needs to be improved. At the same time, it is also necessary to develop a next-generation gasoline that can fully draw out engine performance. In the present study, following on from last year, we evaluated the fuel performance of new surrogates that contain a large amount of light olefins and biofuels using a high-pressure shock tube, and discussed the interaction of these components.


Effects of Different Engine Speed and Load on Lean Limit of High-Compression Ratio Spark Ignition Engine using Light Olefin Fuel

Akira Yamagiwa・Kentaro Nakagawa・Kaito Yasui・Yuya Ohmori・Satoshi Sakaida・Yasuyuki Sakai・Kotaro Tanaka (Ibaraki University)

CO2 emissions from vehicles with internal combustion engines must be reduced, and the optimum combination of next-generation fuels and engine combustion technologies has to be investigated. In this study, the effects of engine speed and load on the lean limit of light olefin fuel were evaluated. As a result, the thermal efficiency was the highest and the lean limit most expanded under high-load, medium-engine speed conditions.


Prediction of WLTC Mode Drive Fuel Consumption of Power-Split HEV and the Optimized Modeling

Fuguo Xu・Yasuo Moriyoshi・Tatsuya Kuboyama・Hong Huang (Chiba University)

This paper explores the possibility of improving fuel economy for power-split HEVs by modeling the powertrain and designing the energy optimization strategy. Firstly, an HEV simulator in MATLAB/Simulink is built with physical parameters from industry and the accuracy performance of this simulator is verified by experiment data collected from the chassis dynamometer bench system. Then, an optimal control problem is formulated to minimize the fuel consumption with dynamic modeling-constraint of battery, and WLTC drive fuel consumption is predicted based on dynamic programming. Finally, the fuel consumption performances of simulation and experiment are compared.


Study on Effect of Synthetic Fuels with Different Properties on Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Performance via Combustion Visualization Technique

Byungju Shin・Toshiaki Shinozaki (New A.C.E Institute)・Takashi Tanaka (Persol Cross Technology)・Fumihiro Kawaharazuka・Noboru Uchida (New A.C.E Institute)

Paraffinic fuel has been received much attention and often studied its promising potential as a future low-carbon and cleaner emissions’ diesel alternative fuel by its less soot characteristics. However, the effects of each fuel property, which varies in a wide range along with other properties variation, on diesel combustion and emission characteristics has not been revealed yet. That could make the preferrable fuel design difficult. This study investigated each fuel property effect on combustion and exhaust emission characteristics by adding several new fuels test to the previous study, and discussed the difference in combustion phenomena by utilizing combustion visualization technique.

  • Session No.71 The Value of Recycling in the Circular Economy (OS)
  • May 24Room G4039:30-11:35
  • Chair: Takashi Furuyama (Koeki University)
Recycling Technology Committee
Mami Kimura (Nagasaki University), Yuko Saito (Tohoku University)
No. Title・Author (Affiliation)

[Keynote Address] Resource Circulation of PA6 Resin with Subcritical Water Method

Hideki Matsumoto・Koya Kato・Tsuyoshi Tominaga (Toray Industries)

Current status, issues, and future prospects of research and development on resource recycling of PA6 resin by the subcritical water method, using market recovered products as raw material.


Utilization of Post-Consumer Recycled Resources for Development High-Performance Engineering Plastics

Shuta Iseki・Hidekazu Shoji・Yasushi Yamanaka (Mitsubishi Chemical)

To achieve circular economy, there are growing attention for utilization of recycled resources in mobility applications. On the other hand, progress of “CASE” requires plastic materials to be multi-functionalized and high-performance. In this presentation, we suggest the design of engineering-plastic materials for both combining utilization of post-consumer recycled resources and functionalization.


Establishment of Recycling of Self-Sufficient PET Bottle for Seat Skin Material
-Supply Environmental-Friendly Material for Vehicles by Their Own Company's Employees-

Naoki Oshita (Toyota Motor)

We have established the world's first recycling system for Self-sufficient PET Bottle collected in TOYOTA into our own products, allowing us to mass produce seat fabric from PET bottles.
In order to achieve that, we establish internal collecting system by our own employees, and also new circular supply chain with related companies.


Development of Lightweight CFRP Back Shell Seat that Also Utilizes Recycled Carbon Fiber and Natural Fiber

Kota Umemura (Toyota Boshoku)

Utilizing recycled carbon fibers and natural fibers to reduce CO2 emissions associated with the production of CFRP.
Utilizing new weight reduction technologies such as topology optimization and fiber orientation materials,Introducing environmentally friendly technology.


The Things that Soundproofing Materials May Contribute to the Automobile Circular Economy

Yuji Watanabe・Hiroyuki Kurihara (Nihon Tokushu Toryo)

We focus on the old clothing utilization and mechanical recycling process as environmentally friendly recycling solutions, and apply them to soundproofing materials for automobiles. We will introduce case studies of automotive soundproofing materials, including their contribution on carbon neutrality and compliance with European ELV regulations.

  • Session No.72 Human-Machine Interface for Driver Assistance System I (OS)
  • May 24Room G40312:35-14:40
  • Chair: Yohei Michitsuji (Ibaraki University)
This session discusses how the human-machine interface for driver assistance systems should be from an ergonomic perspective. It also includes discussions on trust and dependence on assistance systems and the division of roles between drivers and assistant systems.
Vehicle Characteristics Design Committee, Active Safety Engineering Committee, Human Factor Committee, Driver Assessment Technologies Committee, Image Information Application Committee
Takamitsu Tajima (Honda R&D), Tomoyuki Shino (Tokyo Institute of Technology), Hiroyuki Sakai (Toyota Central R&D Labs.), Kazumasa Onda (Suzuki Motor), Yohei Michitsuji (Ibaraki University), Ryuzo Hayashi (Tokyo University of Science), Toshihiro Hiraoka (JARI)
No. Title・Author (Affiliation)

Future Cockpit Solutions for Passenger Vehicles - Enhanced User Experience Design
-Scenic View Vizor Concept Combined with In2visible Surface-

Heinz Bernhard Abel・Jochen Möller・Andreas Brueninghaus・B. Leuchtenberg (Continental Automotive Technologies)

Future cockpits in passenger vehicles contain large area displays. The Scenic View Visor offers a minimalistic cockpit design with a spectacular viewing experience. This provides virtual images with high contrast, independent from the windshield. Additionally, a mechanical integration for different car lines is possible. The Visor has a special coating material with high reflectivity. Multiple matrix backlight LCD displays with local dimming function are integrated below the Cockpit surface. The Visor concept is combined with a large In2visible area including multitouch function for simple operation. Details on the human machine interaction concept for a valuable User Experience will be presented.


A Study on Information Provision from Automated Vehicles to Pedestrians at Unsignalized Pedestrian Crossing

Shunichi Wada・Sho Takahashi・Toru Hagiwara (Hokkaido University)

We proposed an e-HMI system that uses pedestrians' eye movement to communicate with automated vehicles at unsignalized pedestrian crossings, and verified its effectiveness. Using a driving simulator in a virtual space, we conducted an experiment to verify the effectiveness of e-HMI with 36 participants in their 20s to 50s. The results showed that the e-HMI enabled pedestrians to cross the street safely and smoothly.


Evaluation of Visual Alerts on a Head-Up Display that Assist in Predicting Driving Risk

Michiya Terao・Shinya Okamoto・Hisato Fukuda (Gunma University)・Toshihiko Kozai・Tsutomu Iwase (Gunma University/SUBARU)・Tsukasa Mikuni・Norihito Machida・Ikuo Goto (SUBARU)

This study investigated the effect of indication strengths of visual alerts on a head-up display that assists in predicting driving risk, with a focus on understanding their effects on drivers. We conducted a sensory evaluation experiment specifically examining the indication of a head-up display, specifically focusing on scenarios involving the passing of parked vehicles. As a result of a sensory evaluation experiment in a simulator with 16 participants, significant differences were found in both sensory assessment and vehicle control log, evaluating the effect of indication strengths.


Effect of Driver-Led Control Transition with a Take-Over Recommendation on Driver Takeover Performance in Conditional Driving Automation

Yuichi Saito・Yusaku Ichinose (University of Tsukuba)・Toshihisa Sato (AIST)・Makoto Itoh (University of Tsukuba)

This study proposes a take-over recommendation with verbal messages to guide driver-led control transition under conditional driving automation. Based on driver behavior data obtained from a driving simulator experiment with 39 participants, this paper presents the effect of driver-led control transition with a take-over recommendation on improving performance after taking over the driving in a case of obstacle avoidance.


Assessing Driver Engagement in Assisted Driving
-Insights from Pilot Evaluation and Focus Groups-

Francesco Deiana・James Jackson・Elena Castro Gonzalez・Cristina Periago Linares (IDIADA Automotive Technology)

In this study, we present a methodology to assess driver engagement during assisted driving scenarios. The initial phase involved a pilot evaluation with 39 naive drivers experiencing different assisted driving concepts, employing subjective and objective metrics to evaluate the progressive impact of system use in driver engagement. Participants drove on a track with active assistance functions, including a critical "cut-out" scenario. Following this, an extended phase incorporated focus groups, providing broader insights into driver-technology interaction. Findings suggest varied perceptions among age groups, with a consensus on the need for widespread education regarding these systems for effective adaptation.

  • Session No.73 Human-Machine Interface for Driver Assistance System II (OS)
  • May 24Room G40315:20-17:00
  • Chair: Kazumasa Onda (Suzuki Motor)
This session discusses how the human-machine interface for driver assistance systems should be from an ergonomic perspective. It also includes discussions on trust and dependence on assistance systems and the division of roles between drivers and assistant systems.
Vehicle Characteristics Design Committee, Active Safety Engineering Committee, Human Factor Committee, Driver Assessment Technologies Committee, Image Information Application Committee
Takamitsu Tajima (Honda R&D), Tomoyuki Shino (Tokyo Institute of Technology), Hiroyuki Sakai (Toyota Central R&D Labs.), Kazumasa Onda (Suzuki Motor), Yohei Michitsuji (Ibaraki University), Ryuzo Hayashi (Tokyo University of Science), Toshihiro Hiraoka (JARI)
No. Title・Author (Affiliation)

Information Provision using eHMI at RtI of Level 3 AV to Prevent Collision with Surrounding Vehicles

Masaki Kuge・Hailong Liu (Nara Institute of Science and Technology)・Toshihiro Hiraoka (JARI)・Takahiro Wada (Nara Institute of Science and Technology)

Level 3 automated driving vehicles may exhibit irregular and unstable vehicle behavior when requesting the driver to take control, increasing the risk of other vehicles being involved in traffic accidents. This study aims to verify the effectiveness of accident prevention through information cues to other vehicles during the request to intervene via eHMIs.


Relationship between Kansei Evaluation and Sound Quality Characteristics of Operating Sound of Haptic Switch

Hajime Yasuda・Tomotaka Igarashi (Nissan Motor)・Akinari Hirao (Shibaura Institute of Technology)

Many kinds of switches are used inside the cabin. Recently, the switches without stroke tend to be used by technology advances and styling demands. In this study, the evaluation structure of operation sound and the sound quality characteristics were analyzed for haptic switch that are the new type of push switches operating by finger.


Verification of Operability and Strength of Variable Steering Wheel throught Analysis

Dongmin Kim・Hyeonmuk Kim (KOMOS)

The purpose of this study is to verify through analysis the operational performance of the variable steering wheel, which is being developed to improve driver convenience as autonomous vehicle driving technology develops. For future autonomous driving levels 3 and above, entertainment inside the vehicle is becoming more important. Accordingly, securing driver's seat and interior space is becoming essential and important, and the need to hide the steering wheel as a technical solution is being highlighted. We are currently developing a folding/unfolding steering wheel, and NVH, strength, fatigue durability, etc. are verified and analyzed through analysis of problems that arise when the steering wheel is folded/unfolded.


Design and Implementation of Variable Steering Wheel System to Enhance Convenience and Space Utilization in Autonomous Vehicles

Hyeonmuk Kim・Dongmin Kim (KOMOS)

The research focuses on the implementation of variable steering wheel systems in tandem with the advancement of SAE Level 3 autonomous driving technology. Emphasizing the rapid changes in the automotive industry and the evolution from SAE Level 2 to Level 3, the study underscores the significance of technological solutions to enhance efficiency and driver convenience in future autonomous vehicles. The research delves into aspects such as steering wheel types, the purpose and concepts of variable steering wheels, operational specifications, key requirements, motor and gear selection, strength testing, and outlines directions for future improvements.

  • Session No.74 Technologies of Evaluations and Measures for Road Traffic Noise (OS)
  • May 24Room G4049:30-11:35
  • Chair: Yasuaki Okada (Meijo University)
The activities for improvement of road traffic noise would be discussed with analyzing widespread issues such as prediction and evaluation for the vehicle sound as sound sources for road traffic noise, measurement and analysis for the factors of environmental impact, and impact on concerns and responses for roadside inhabitants.
Vehicle Exterior Noise Committee
Shigenori Yokoshima (Kanagawa Environmental Research Center), Yoshihiro Shirahashi (Kanagawa University), Katsuya Yamauchi (Kyushu University), Sohei Tsujimura (Ibaraki University), Yasuaki Okada (Meijo University), Toru Yamazaki (Kanagawa University)
No. Title・Author (Affiliation)

[Keynote Address] Status of Road Traffic Noise and Vehicle Noise Regulations

Yasunori Tatsuta (Ministry of the Environment)

In this article, we will explain the system for monitoring of road traffic noise, introduce the results of monitoring, and introduce the history of the discussion about measures against motor vehicle noise in the Central Environment Council and "Future Policy for Motor Vehicle Noise Reduction (Fourth Report)”.


Evaluation of the Relationship between Noise Level and Road Surface Characteristics

Tadashi Tsunematsu・Takayuki Mima (The Nippon Road)・Koji Kato・Masakiyo Takahira (Toyota Motor)

Road surfaces compliant with ISO 10844:2011-2021 are specified as road surfaces for external noise measurement tests. However, from extensive experiences, it has become clear that even the slightest differences in road noise factors can cause differences in road noise levels. Therefore, in this study, we constructed several trial pavements with different road surface characteristics and, the relationship between tire/road noise and road surface factors was evaluated.


Survey Results Regarding Automobile Running Noise

Makiko Kadoya (Kanagawa University)

According to the Ministry of the Environment, the achievement rate of environmental standards for automobile traffic noise is increasing, but the number of complaints has not decreased. In order to understand the actual status of complaints, we conducted a questionnaire survey of all wards and cities in charge of environmental affairs, and further narrowed down our focus to running noise and summarized the status of complaints. Complaints were most common on roads with two lanes or less, but it was found that sleep disturbances were more common on large national highways.


Examination on Noisiness of Time-Varying Road Traffic Noise due to Passing-by High Sound Level Vehicles
-Effect of Different Vehicle Noise-

Masayuki Kito・Katsuya Yamauchi (Kyushu University)・Makoto Morinaga (Daido University)

Equivalent contentious A-weighted sound pressure level (L_Aeq) may not be sufficient to evaluate the noisiness impression of road traffic noise that widely varies due to the passing-by high noise vehicles. The authors have investigated the effects of the frequency and volume of passing middle sized trucks through the subjective evaluations. In this paper, we examined the effect of different vehicle noise on the evaluation of noisiness.


Comparison in Community Response to Road Traffic Noise by Housing Classification

Shigenori Yokoshima (Kanagawa Environmental Research Center)・Yui Komi (Kanagawa University)・Makoto Morinaga (Daido University)・Sohei Tsujimura (Ibaraki University)・Naoki Suda (Onosokki)・Yoshiki Umezaki (Creative Research and Planning)・Toru Yamazaki (Kanagawa University)

A social survey of community response to road traffic noise was conducted in residential areas facing arterial roads in Kanagawa Prefecture as part of the Kanagawa University Cross-Disciplinary Research Promotion Project. The questionnaire was formed on the basis of our previous findings. This paper explains the survey method and the estimation method of noise exposure using noise maps. Furthermore, we develop the relationship between noise exposure and the following community response: annoyance, listening disturbance, sleep disturbance, and other responses added in the survey. We discuss the differences in the community responses between detached and apartment houses.

  • Session No.75 Tire/Road Characteristics, Contact Properties and Related Technologies -Tire Mechanisms Toward the Future- (OS)
  • May 24Room G40412:35-14:15
  • Chair: Isao Kuwayama (Bridgestone)
The latest information related to tires and road surfaces will be collected, and future directions related to tires will be discussed from a wide range of aspects such as handling performance, comfort performance, and environmental impact reduction.
Tire & Road Surface Comittee
Isao Kuwayama (Bridgestone), Daisuke Yokoi (Suzuki Motor), Masami Matsubara (Waseda University)
No. Title・Author (Affiliation)

On Measurement of Road Friction Characteristics in Winter Snowy Region

Ichiro Kageyama (Consortium on Advanced Road-Friction Database)・Atsushi Watanabe・Yukiyo Kuriyagawa・Tetsunori Haraguchi (Nihon University)・Tetsuya Kaneko (Osaka Sangyo University)・Minoru Nishio (Absolute)・Nobuhiro Nitta・Takashi Asai (J-QuAD DYNAMICS)

A simplified road friction measurement device was constructed to measure the transition process from static to dynamic friction based on actual tires, and the equivalent stiffness of the tread, maximum static friction, dynamic friction, etc. were measured on various road surfaces. Next, we applied these results to a brush model to investigate the possibility of estimating the braking force characteristics of tire. As a result, it was shown that peak μ on μ-s characteristics can be estimated with relatively high accuracy during braking.


Relationship between Road Surface and Tire Slippage, and Effects Temperature on Vehicle Exterior Noise during Acceleration

Kazuki Yamaguchi・Naoto Oishi・Takahito Sakuma (Sumitomo Rubber)

Vehicle Exterior Noise During Acceleration is more affected by ground friction vibration noise due to slippage between tyre and road surface than exterior noise during coasting. In this study, the amount of slip between the tyre and the road surface was quantified using a single tyre index and the relationship with the noise value was confirmed. Furthermore, to confirm the effect of air temperature, the amount of slip was measured at different air temperatures and the relationship between the noise value and the amount of slip was investigated and reported.


Robustness Verification of Elliptical Contact Tire Model

Ryota Nakanishi (Sumitomo Rubber Industries)・Masami Matsubara (Waseda University)・Haruyuki Suzuki (Sumitomo Rubber Industries)・Shozo Kawamura・Daiki Tajiri (Toyohashi University of Technology)

The elliptical contact tire model is a simplified mechanical model that expresses the distribution of contact pressure and lateral stress in the contact plane by considering the contact shape as an ellipse. In this study, we examine whether the elliptical contact tire model can reproduce the distribution of contact pressure and lateral stress during rolling of multiple tires measured under different loads, slip angles and camber angles.


Measurement of Tire Sidewall Deformation Shape by Phase-Locked Loop Imaging

Masami Matsubara (Waseda University)・Seiki Shibataka・Shozo Kawamura・Daiki Tajiri (Toyohashi University of Technology)・Hiroshi Tachiya (Kanazawa University)

This study developed a system that enables measurement of three-dimensional deformed shapes of tires by combining phase-locked loop photography, which can capture images under high-speed rotation conditions, and the stereo camera method. The deformation shape of the sidewall was measured to be different depending on the slip angle and slip rate.

  • Session No.38 Industry-Academia Collaboration and Human Resource Development in Automotive Control (OS)
  • May 24Room G40414:55-17:35
  • Chair: Toshihiro Aono (Hitachi)
The Automotive Control and Modeling Division Committee is engaged in industry-academia collaboration activities and human resource development activities using AI (artificial intelligence), control technology, and mathematics for the next-generation evolution of automobile control and mobility services. As a human resource development activity aimed at educating the next generation of automotive engineers, we will provide AI Formula and the benchmark problem of "Mobility Service Optimization Problems Using Intelligent Mobility" to students and young researchers. These activities and the latest technologies that can be applied to them will be introduced.
Vehicle Control and Modeling Engineering Committee
Yasui Yuji (Honda R&D), Masakazu Mukai (Kogakuin University), Yutaka Hirano (HIRANO Research Lab.), Toshihiro Aono (Hitachi Astemo), Yoshihiro Mizoguchi (Kyushu University)
No. Title・Author (Affiliation)

Introduction of the Benchmark Problem of Optimal Motion and Energy Control of a 4-in-Wheel-Motor Car

Yutaka Hirano (HIRANO Reseach Lab.)・Rui Gao (Modelon)・Junichi Kako (Toyota Motor)・Fuguo Xu (Chiba University)・Tielong Shen (Sophia University)

In order to promote industry-academia collaboration, JSAE Technical Division Committee of the Automotive Control and Model Research will set benchmark problems that apply the latest machine learning and control theory to automobile control. As one of them, an optimal control problem for the motion and energy of a four-wheel in-wheel motor vehicle was settled. The object to be controlled is an autonomous vehicle equipped with a four-wheel in-wheel motor and a steer-by-wire system. Tasks are set to start, accelerate, decelerate and stop on rough roads, and double lane change on rough roads. The vehicle model is a full vehicle model with a three-dimensional multi-body mechanism written in Modelica, and the body movement can be controlled by the suspension reaction force of braking/driving force. In two tasks, challengers are required to solve an optimal control problem that minimizes the power consumption of a four-wheel in-wheel motor while suppressing body vibration below a predetermined value. This benchmark problem has already been developed as the Autonomous Driving Control Benchmark Challenge at IEEE CDC2023, which was held in December 2023, and we will now start accepting applications in Japan. Challengers will be provided with a Modelica model, a Simulink model using its FMU, and a free license for the Modelica tool (Modelon Impact).


AI Formula

Masaya Okada・Yuki Akimoto・Atsushi Kato・Yuji Yasui (Honda R&D)

AI Formula is a technical challenge where robot car drives autonomously in mission course. In purpose, it can acquire the necessary technology for next-generation mobility research. thruough, autonomous racing competing speed and intelligence in the real world. Starting from 2025 in SICE and JSAE.


Optimization Problem of Mobility Service in Smart Satellite City
-SICE-JSAE-πMAP Benchmark Problem-

Yuji Yasui (Honda R&D)・Masakazu Mukai (Kogakuin University)・Yutaka Hirano (Hirano Research Lab)・Toshihiro Aono (Hitachi Astemo)・Yoshihiro Mizoguchi (Kyusyu University)・Wenjing Cao (Sophia University)・Shinkichi Kawai・Taisei Ito (Solize)・Chisa Kobayashi (Honda R&D)

SICE-JSAE Automotive Control and Modeling Committee and Post Advanced Innovation powered by Mathematics Platform have conducted benchmark problem activities in order to educate students and young engineers by providing research subjects and support their research activities. In this paper, the new benchmark problem of “Optimization Problem of Mobility Service in Smart Satellite City” will be introduced.


A Case Study of 'Mobility Service Optimization Problems using Intelligent Mobility'

Shinkichi Kawai・Taisei Ito・Shinji Minami・Nobuki Hiramine (Solize)・Yuji Yasui (Honda R&D)

As a case study of the "Mobility Service Optimization Problem using Intelligent Mobility" presented as a JSAE-SICE benchmark problem, we report a case in which we attempted to optimize the operation route of intelligent mobility in a satellite city according to revenue, operation cost, and customer satisfaction by using the "Smart Satellite City Simulator".


Maximizing Smart Mobility Service Revenues through Dynamic Programming (First Report)

Takehito Kobayashi・Wenjing Cao (Sophia University)

With the advance of automated driving technology and vehicle electrification, a wide variety of mobility services are being developed. Under these circumstances, service providers need to ensure sustainable operations while meeting customer needs. Therefore, it is important to analyze the relationship between pricing plans, utilization rates, and revenues using a smart satellite city simulator to develop optimal pricing and advertising strategies.


[Keynote Address] Logical Manifestation of Specifications, Requirements and Responsibilities
-Approaches from Software Science-

Ichiro Hasuo (NII/SOKENDAI)・James Haydon (NII)・Sota Sato (NII/SOKENDAI)・Clovis Eberhart (NII/JFLI)・Masaki Waga (Kyoto University/NII)・Zhenya Zhang (Kyushu University/NII)・Jeremy Dubut (AIST)・Naoki Ueda・Yosuke Yokoyama (Mitsubishi Electric)・Kenji Kamijo・Yoshiyuki Shinya・Takamasa Suetomi (Mazda)・Nayuta Yanagisawa (Toyota Motor)

An overview is given of two recent bodies of logical technologies. One is a toolsuite based on temporal logics; this contributes to the manifestation and exploitation of specifications and requirements all the way through design, production, quality management, and maintenance. The other is on logical proofs of safety of automated driving; this explicates each traffic participant's responsibility and thus contributes to a safe and accountable automated driving ecosystem.

  • Session No.76 Development and Evaluation Technology for Sensor
  • May 24Room G414+G4159:30-10:45
  • Chair: Shin Kato (AIST)
No. Title・Author (Affiliation)

Development of an Artificial Weather Chamber that Reproduces a Dynamic Weather Environment for Autonomous Driving Sensors (2nd Report)

Haruki Seto・Hiroyuki Enoki・Hirokazu Tanaka (Esoec)

For the purpose of evaluating ADAS functions and performance, we have developed a new all-weather artificial weather chamber that can reproduce rainfall, fog, and snowfall.
We have used this chamber to evaluate visibility in rain, fog, and snow conditions.
In this report, we collected field data such as rainfall, fog, and snowfall, and examined technological development and evaluation methods for reproducing it.


Proposal of Free Space Evaluation Method Considering Sensor Error Characteristics and Consistency of Detection Criteria

Toshiyuki Adachi・Hitoshi Hayakawa・Yuji Oishi (Hitachi)・Yoshinobu Ogasawara・Shigenori Hayase (Hitachi Astemo)

In free-space detection for the realization of high-performance ADAS, there was a problem that the quantitative evaluation differed from the qualitative evaluation based on visual observation. In this manuscript, we present a correspondence-based evaluation method that considers sensor error characteristics in both the circumferential and radial directions to reduce the discrepancy in evaluation results.


Smart Battery Health Algorithm
-Advanced Diagnosis of 12V Lead-Acid Vehicle Batteries using a Machine Learning Approach-

Takehiro Ogawa・Ramirez Bernard・Duhart Bronson・Diaz Moises・Molinar José (Continental Automotive)

Continental’s AI based algorithm predicts battery failures and alerts users.
Collect Data by using battery sensor installed in vehicles and transfer data to cloud via OEM telematics unit or OBD dongle.
An enhanced algorithm based on cloud data for better detection & prediction of battery failures.

  • Session No.77 Intelligent Safety Vehicle II
  • May 24Room G414+G41512:10-13:50
  • Chair: Manabu Omae (Keio University)
No. Title・Author (Affiliation)

Nonlinear Model Predictive Control for Drifting on Low-Friction Surfaces

Rin Yonetani・Han Wen・Hiroyuki Okuda・Takuma Yamaguchi・Tatsuya Suzuki (Nagoya University)

When a vehicle enters a low-friction road surface such as a snowy or gravel road, the tires may skid and the vehicle may become unstable. Therefore, it is thought that safety can be ensured if it is possible to freely control drifting, which is cornering by intentionally sliding the rear wheels. In this study, we propose a control system for driving in a drift state using nonlinear model predictive control.


Lane-Changing Space Selection at Congested Merging Area

Keiju Nishimura・Hanwool Woo (Kogakuin University)

This study assumes a scene in which the ego vehicle performs a lane change into the congested main lane. The proposed method selects the lane-changing space based on the remained distance of the merging lane and relative amounts of adjacent vehicles on the main lane. In addition, our method estimates the acceptability of the vehicles on the main lane with respect to the lane-changing of the autonomous vehicle. This enables a more flexible decision making for various driver characteristics of the main lane drivers. Through simulations, the effectiveness of the proposed method is evaluated.


Prediction of 4G LTE Throughput in Vehicles using LSTM

Xiangqing Zhang・Hidenori Yamashita・Michikazu Umemura (AutoNetworks Technologies)

In this presentation, we will introduce a technology for predicting future 4G communication speeds in vehicles using LSTM. We have achieved high-precision predictions by utilizing past communication quality records and geographical location information. Based on these predictions, we can avoid communication issues and thereby contribute to improving the overall stability of communication services in vehicles. This technology holds great potential for applications in fields that require fast and stable communication, such as remote driving.


A Method of Controlling a Dual-Structure Electric Steering System for Autonomous Driving

Taehong Kim (Hyundai Mobis)

As autonomous driving technology comes to reality, the role of steering, one of the key systems of the vehicle, is becoming more important. In particular, the position control performance of the electric steering system plays a key role in terms of safety and convenience.
In particular, Lv.4 autonomous driving is not mandatory for the driver to look forward and the driver does not ride, so it is essential to meet ASIL-D by default. For this, a fully redundant system is required. Fully redundant EPS basically has all components duplicated based on the power pack standard. That is, electronic devices, ECUs, sensors, and motor winding are all duplicated. Based on this structure, an optimized algorithm is needed to successfully perform position control by synchronizing position control by receiving a redundant command steering angle from the autonomous driving module.

  • Session No.78 Automatic Collision Notification System (OS)
  • May 24Room G414+G41514:30-16:10
  • Chair: Hirotoshi Ishikawa (HEM-Net)
Injury prediction algorithms, emergency medical analysis, and accident investigation analysis related to automatic collison notification systems will be discussed.
Automatic Accident Emergency Call System Committee
Sadayuki Ujihasi (Nippon Bunri University), Tetsuya Nishimoto (Nihon University)
No. Title・Author (Affiliation)

Study on D-Call Net Effectiveness by using ITARDA Macro Database with the Emergency Transport Database (2nd Report)

Toru Kiuchi (ITARDA)・Nobuo Saito (Japan Mayday Service)・Masayuki Shirakawa (ITARDA)

At the JSAE spring session five years ago, the authors attempted to analyze the effectiveness using the 2015 and 2016 matched data, but did not come close to confirming a clear effect. Since the number of vehicles equipped with AACN systems has expanded significantly in recent years, we attempted to analyze the effectiveness by matching emergency transport data with automatic reporting data for the most recent period from 2020 to 2022.


Threshold for Activating the Doctor Dispatch System in the Advanced Automatic Collision Notification (D-Call Net) Algorithm Ver.2017

Tomokazu Motomura (Hokusoh HEMS Nippon Medical School Chiba Hokusoh Hospital/Nippon Medical School/D-Call Net Study Group)・Tetsuya Nishimoto (D-Call Net Study Group/Nihon University)・Hirotoshi Ishikawa (D-Call Net Study Group/HEM-Net)・Kazuki Mashiko (Hokusoh HEMS Nippon Medical School Chiba Hokusoh Hospital/Nippon Medical School)・Kunihiro Mashiko (D-Call Net Study Group/HEM-Net/Minami Tama Hospital)・Yoshiaki Hara (Hokusoh HEMS Nippon Medical School Chiba Hokusoh Hospital/Nippon Medical School)・Nobuya Kitamura (Kimitsu Chuo Hospital/Japanese Society for Aeromedical Services, Doctor Helicopter Committee)

The threshold value for algorithm Ver. 2017, which activates a doctor dispatch system such as Doctor-heli with automatic accident notification, was investigated. The threshold value for reducing the under-triage rate to less than 10% was determined for 326 traffic accident investigation cases that were transported to nms Chiba Hokusoh Hospital. [1] The age of the crew member is known: 10% [2] The age of the crew member is unknown: 20%.


Quantifying the Relationship between Emergency Transport Time and Injury Severity to Improve Survival Rates
-Analysis of Australian Emergency Transport Case Data-

Kazuhiro Kubota・Tetsuya Nishimoto (Nihon University)・Giulio Ponte (University of Adelaide)

The relationship between transport time and injury severity was quantified by analyzing data from emergency transport cases in Australia. The rate of minor injuries decreases as transport time increases, with the minor injury rate being less than 60% at 120 minutes. Transport time from the scene of a crash varies depending on the means of transportation, such as helicopters or ambulances. The relationship between transport time and the fatality and serious injury rate can be used to select the optimal means of transport based on distance and the availability of medical resources.


Accident and Injury Prediction Maps in Vehicle-to-Vehicle Collision Based on Accident and Road Information using Deep Learning

Yusuke Miyazaki・Tsubasa Miyazaki (Tokyo Institute of Technology)・Koji Kitamura (AIST)・Fusako Sato (JARI)

Conventional accident prediction models have been constructed using only structured data expressed in tabular form. However, it is difficult to incorporate environmental information such as intersection geometry into structured data alone. Therefore, this study developed a multimodal deep learning model that combines structured data and road image data to construct a vehicle accident prediction model.

  • Session No.79 Analysis of Real World Accidents and Safety Measures I -Causes of Accident and Safety Issues- (OS)
  • May 24Room G416+G4179:30-11:10
  • Chair: Katsumi Nawata (Toyota Motor)
Investigation of accident mechanisms or evaluation of safety features are important for traffic safety development. Corresponding to recent accident reductions, reducing remaining accidents becoming much harder. In such situations, it is important to develop evaluation methods for new safety features or accident investigations which are not covered by present manners. This section expects new study presentations and discussion in such fields.
Traffic Safety Committee
Hisashi Imanaga (Japan Automobile Research Institute), Yoshiyuki Kuroba (Honda Motor), Katsumi Nawata (Toyota Motor), Shigeru Hirayama (Nissan Motor)
No. Title・Author (Affiliation)

An Analysis of Characteristics of Law Violations Caused by Elderly Drivers in Pedestrian to Vehicle Collisions
-Accident Statistical Analysis by Verifying the Pedestrian Injury Situation and Magnification Ratio as Evaluation Coefficient-

Yasufumi Sekine (Fukuyama University)

In order to consider effective traffic safety countermeasures for elderly drivers, it is important to clarify the characteristics of accidents caused by elderly drivers through analysis of traffic accidents. In this study, the author conducted a statistical analysis of legal violations in pedestrian accidents and verified the pedestrian injury situation. And characteristics of legal violations by elderly drivers in pedestrian accidents have been clarified.


Analysis of the Effect of Reducing Accidents Involving Bicyclists through the Coordination of Active Safety and Passive Safety

Yuichi Omoda・Yuji Arai・Kazunori Kikuchi・Ryohei Homma (JARI)・Nobuhiko Takahashi (JAMA)

In order to efficiently reduce traffic fatal accidents, it is important that all parties involved in traffic safety work in unison to implement countermeasures. For this purpose, it is necessary to analyze the reduction effects of vehicle safety measures and the accident patterns that remain after the vehicle safety measures are taken. In this study, the fatal accident reduction effect of vehicle safety measures combined with active and passive safety technologies was calculated for vehicle to bicycle accidents. In addition, the characteristics of the fatal accidents in which vehicle safety measures are not implemented are summarized.


Near-Miss Incident Classification from Dashcam Video using SlowFast Networks

Yucheng Zhang・Masataka Kato・Koichi Emura (Panasonic Automotive Systems)・Eiji Watanabe (National Institute for Basic Biology)

This paper classifies near-miss traffic videos using the SlowFast deep neural network, which mimics the characteristics of slow and fast visual information processed by the two different streams from the M and P cells of the human brain. It analyzes the relation with human visual perception in the traffic environment, demonstrates how it can contribute to improving traffic safety, and provides new insights into future cognitive errors in traffic accidents.


Efficient Traffic Scene Retrieval System by Vision-Language Model and Clustering

Masafumi Tsuyuki (Hitachi)・Yoshitaka Atarashi・Trongmun Jiralerspong (Hitachi Astemo)

Retrieving relevant traffic scene data from existing database is essential in the development of advanced driver-assistance systems but such task is time consuming and computationally expensive. This study proposes a traffic scene retrieval system that utilizes a vision-language model and clustering techniques. The proposed system is capable of executing data retrieval task by inputting an image data or text as a search query. Evaluation results showed that the system was able to retrieve complex scene data (e.g., traffic congestion) from a driving video database under 3 seconds. Overall, the results indicate that the prosed system is feasible for practical applications.

  • Session No.80 Analysis of Real World Accidents and Safety Measures II -Causes of Accident and Safety Issues- (OS)
  • May 24Room G416+G41712:10-13:50
  • Chair: Hisashi Imanaga (JARI)
Investigation of accident mechanisms or evaluation of safety features are important for traffic safety development. Corresponding to recent accident reductions, reducing remaining accidents becoming much harder. In such situations, it is important to develop evaluation methods for new safety features or accident investigations which are not covered by present manners. This section expects new study presentations and discussion in such fields.
Traffic Safety Committee
Hisashi Imanaga (Japan Automobile Research Institute), Yoshiyuki Kuroba (Honda Motor), Katsumi Nawata (Toyota Motor), Shigeru Hirayama (Nissan Motor)
No. Title・Author (Affiliation)

Analysis and Modeling of Cyclist's Decision for Left-Turn Vehicle at Uncontrolled Intersection

Ryo Wakisaka・Kazunori Ban (Toyota Technical Development)・Takuma Yamaguchi・Hiroyuki Okuda・Tatsuya Suzuki (Nagoya University)

In order to evaluate automated driving systems through simulation, it is necessary to model traffic participants. In particular, cyclists are an important factor in terms of safety because of their erratic movements due to ambiguity in rule recognition and other factors. In this study, we analyzed and modeled cyclist behavior for a left-turn vehicle at an unsignalized intersection based on measured data from a cycling simulator.


Analysis of Pedestrian and Vehicle Behavior using Machine Learning for Risk Assessment of Crosswalks

Miki Hayashima・Yuji Matsuki (Fukuoka Institute of Technology)

To clarify the causes of accidents at crosswalks, an analysis of the movements of pedestrians and vehicles is essential. In this study, we developed a system that employs a machine learning model to perform this analysis. This model utilizes images captured by multiple general-purpose cameras as input, allowing for an accurate analysis of the dynamics at crosswalks. Furthermore, we applied this system to quantitatively assess the risk associated with pedestrian crossings.


Effect of Duration and Frequency of Distraction on the Number of Rear-End Accidents

Hodaka Kita・Yuki Arai・Juan C. Gonzalez Palencia (Gunma University)・Noriaki Takenoue (GSEC)・Kenji Amagai・Mikiya Araki (Gunma University)

Understanding the effect of the duration and frequency of distraction on the number of rear-end accidents can contribute to the development of ADAS. In this research, distracted driving was simulated by stopping visual information input at arbitrary durations and frequencies for traveling vehicles using a multi-agent model. Result show that the number of accidents begins to increase when the duration of the distraction is higher than approximately 1 s.


Analysis on Operation Behavior for Emergency Stop Switch while Driver's Sudden Illness

Hiroshi Kuniyuki・Toshiaki Tanaka・Shuhei Tazawa (Suwa University of Science)・Daisuke Ito (Kansai University)

The Emergency Driving Stop System (EDSS), which can stop a vehicle when a driver's sudden illness occurs while driving a vehicle by pressing the switch, is beginning to be adopted for large commercial bus etc. This study analyzed the operation behavior of pressing the emergency stop switch using a subject experiment, and examined the operation method and switch placement that would facilitate pressing the switch while driver's sudden illness.

  • Session No.81 Crash Safety (Occupant and VRU Protection) (OS)
  • May 24Room G416+G41714:30-17:10
  • Chair: Tomohiro Izumiyama (Mazda)
Impact Biomechanics Committee
Masahito Hitosugi (Shiga University of Medical Science), Ryuji Otani (Nissan Motor), Daisuke Ito (Kansai University), Mitsutoshi Masuda (Toyota Motor), Yukou Takahashi (Honda R&D)
No. Title・Author (Affiliation)

6D Marker: an Advanced Kinematic Tracking System for Proving Ground Tests

David Rodriguez・Jose Luís Santos・Carles Vidal・Genís Mensa (Applus+ IDIADA)

This work introduces a cutting-edge 6D marker tracking system employed in an Applus+ IDIADA research project focused on studying occupant behavior before a crash. The system was used to assess the occupant kinematic response to Autonomous Emergency Braking (AEB) in proving ground testing activities with volunteers. This advanced technology precisely measures the 6 degrees of freedom per each marker with one single camera. The markers are mounted in the most relevant body regions of the occupants to ensure proper kinematics assessment and to provide key information for the subsequent development of vehicle safety strategies with Human Body Models (HBM) simulation.


Emergency Braking-Induced Occupant Repositioning Implications for Restraint System Performance

Simona Roka・Alessandro Gravina・Pablo Lozano・Cesarine Vanheule (IDIADA)

This study explores how emergency braking-induced occupant repositioning affects restraint systems performance, emphasizing the interplay of active and passive safety in unavoidable accidents. Volunteer data from a proving ground measures 3D displacement are used for T0 position. HBMs and ATDs provide unique insights to the new position obtained after AEB. Simulations replicate a frontal impact with an ATD, a passive HBM, and an active HBM. Preliminary tests reveal up to 20cm forward movement of the volunteer's forehead. The outputs from the study are intended for novel scenarios and for inclusion in virtual consumer testing load cases.


Analysis of Rib Strain Generation in Frontal Impact at Medium Impact Velocity

Daisuke Ito・Shin Morimoto (Kansai University)

In this study, Rib deformation in frontal collisions at impact speed below the regulation test was analyzed by finite element analysis. It was confirmed that relatively high plastic strain was generated in the ribs even at impact speed of 35 km/h, depending on a combination of the restraint system and driver body size. We attempted to explain the mechanism of rib strain generation by considering a combination of simple deformation modes.


Safety for the Welfare-Vehicle Passengers with a Wheelchair
-Validation by Sled Tests with a Dummy-

Masahito Hitosugi・Ayumu Kuwahara (Shiga University of Medical Sciende)

With aging, the number of wheelchair users has increased in Japan. There have been some motor vehicle collisions that a passenger with a wheelchair died of the collision. Because the seatbelt did not adequately fit to the body of the wheelchair users, they suffered from fatal injuries. To clarify the kinematics of the passengers with a wheelchair during a frontal collision, we performed sled tests with a dummy model. We propose the task to prevent fatal collisions involving passengers with a wheelchair.


Analysis of Effective Brake Deceleration Waveforms for Reducing Pedestrian Injuries in Vehicle Collisions

Rikuto Takeda・Yuqing Zhao・Koji Mizuno (Nagoya University)・Asei Wakabayashi・Mami Kawase・Toshio Hosokawa (DENSO)・Yong Han (Xiamen University of Technology)

During vehicle collisions, pedestrians sustain injuries from both the vehicle and the road surface. This study aimed to model vehicles and pedestrians using multibody dynamics and optimize behavior upon impact with the road surface based on vehicle body shape and pedestrian physique. The goal was to determine the brake deceleration waveform that minimizes pedestrian injuries caused by the road surface.


Proposal for the Strength Testing of Automotive Windshields in Preparation for Changes in Pedestrian Protection Laws and Regulations

Toru Takabayashi・Jirou Nishihama (AGC)

In some cases, the windshield does not break in a pedestrian head impact test and a high HIC value is obtained. Although it is difficult to evaluate the HIC value of glass alone, we would like to predict the results to some extent before installing it in a vehicle. In this paper, we clarified the glass requirements for deriving a good HIC value and discussed the usefulness of the falling ball test as a single glass performance test to determine whether the requirements have been achieved.

  • Session No.82 Prospects of Sustainable Automotive Society (OS)
  • May 24Room G418+G4199:30-11:10
  • Chair: Kiyotaka Sato (Mazda)
Sustainable Automotive Society Committee
Masahiro Shioji (Kyoto University), Takashi Ishimori (Hino Motors), Takashi Kawasaki (Toyota Motor), Nobuyuki Kawahara (Okayama University), Eisuke Kimura (Honda Motor), Yoshio Maeda (Waseda University)
No. Title・Author (Affiliation)

Systematization of Investment Decision through xEV Vehicle Driving Energy Analysis

Wookhyun Han・Kwangchan Ko・Yong Lee (Hyundai Motor)

As the vehicle's power source moves from the engine to electrification, there is a major change in the architecture that makes up the vehicle. The various items proposed for vehicle application inevitably causes changes in weight and cost, and considering that the main factor of consumers purchasing an electric vehicle is the total cost of ownership (TCO), systematic criteria are needed to prioritize each item. In this study, the distribution of energy consumed during vehicle driving was reliably analyzed and the weight-fuel ratio coefficient was presented. Using the proposed coefficients, TCO analysis for various ideas can be performed, and through this, rational decision-making on whether to invest can be made.


Map-Incorporated Urban Traffic Scenario Generation with VAE

Takumi Monogami・Yunsoo Bok・Keisuke Yoneda・Naoki Suganuma (Kanazawa University)

Large-scale dataset of traffic scenarios is widely utilized for training, validation and verification of automated driving. However, due to the limited number of collectible data, data augmentation becomes imperative to ensure sufficient and diverse data. We propose a method that employs map and VAE to generate urban traffic scenarios, enabling the consideration of road topology and spatial relationships.


Demonstration Experiment of Home Carbon Neutral System through the Use of EV & Photovoltaic Power Generation
-Validation of efficiency for Virtual Grid-

Tsuguhiko Nakagawa (Gifu University)・Hideyuki Chisaka・Yoshikazu Miyagawa・Katsuhiko Furuya (Nichicon)

We have developed and built the system which could achieve carbon neutral of all energy to use at a home including the privately-owned car economically using Photovoltaic Power Generation and Electric Vehicle. The built energy system is managed by complete automatic control. The effect of the system has been verified the demonstration experiment through real life for more than one year. As the result, CO2 emissions from home were reduced more than 90%.


Nagoya University International Education Summer Intensive Program: “Latest Advanced Technology & Trends in Automobile Engineering”

Yasuhiko Sakai・Hikaru Nakamura・Susumu Hara・Reiko Furuya・Gang Zeng・Emanuel Leleito・Dina Grib・Yumiko Goda (Nagoya University)

Nagoya University has conducted an international education program entitled "Advanced Technologies and Trends in Automotive Engineering" from June to July almost every year since 2008. In this program, students from overseas and Japanese students study together to develop human resources who can play a role in a sustainable automotive society from a global perspective. We will introduce the contents of the program in this presentation.

  • Session No.83 Intersection of Design and Technology (OS)
  • May 24Room G418+G41912:10-14:15
  • Chair: Shinji Takashima (Advanced Institute of Industrial Technology)
The world of mobility underwent a period of profound change with DX, CASE, and MaaS, and in addition, COVID-19 brought about profound changes in both human thought and the environment. We would like to think anew about what design can and should do from the perspective of the intersection of design and technology.
Design Committee
Yuuki Taguchi (Suzuki Motor), Masahiko Matsuura (GK Dynamics)
No. Title・Author (Affiliation)

Fusion of Design and Technology to Realize a Dream “Flying Car”

Kota Hishinuma (Tokyo R&D)

The story focuses on how to express a dream vehicle through design and integrate it with technology, as the world begins to move toward the realization of a vehicle that was once dreamed of as a "flying car". Only when the beauty of design and the feasibility of technology are combined can an attractive object be created.


Development of Body Color Hidden Lighting for Luminous Panel
-Body Color Hidden Lighting-

Sung Ho Park (Hyundai Motor)

Exterior lamps for vehicles are gradually slimmed and hidden in accordance with design trends to differentiate vehicle images when turning on and off. In the case of the hidden lighting technology applied in the past, a paint layer is formed inside the lens, resulting in a step difference from surrounding parts by the thickness of the lens, and it was difficult to implement matte painting. In this study, a body color layer is formed outside the lens to implement bumpers, Only the external laser patterning type and the laser etching unit, which can be integrated and matte without parting with peripheral components such as fenders, and the laser etching unit are moved into the lens, so that there is no curvature due to laser etching on the outside of the lens and the light emitting unit cannot be visually checked, that is, body color hidden lighting technologies with excellent hidden feeling have been developed.


A Design-Centered Approach for Sustainable Transformation and User Adoption of Shared Services

Emilia Romero Tienda・Adrià Ferrer (Applus+ IDIADA)

In the quest for sustainable urban mobility, the need to differentiate between urban and long-distance vehicles is being realized. Digitalization and ADAS systems, promise greater efficiency and safety. However, a fundamental challenge remains convincing end-users to adopt shared services. This paper argues for a design-centered approach, exploring how the adoption of non-ownership-based mobility could be driven. In addition, considering data for traffic prioritization, it examines urban planning perspectives to identify areas in need of improvement. By aligning vehicle design with urban infrastructure, we aim to catalyze a transformative shift towards more sustainable mobility.


Design Research Development in India using UX Method

Yoshiharu Miyachi (Shizuoka University of art and culture)・Kohei Oda (Trinity)

In order to explore next-generation mobility needs including MAAS in India, we are conducting research on user needs and market acceptability using new UX methods. In emerging countries such as India, development must proceed with the assumption that there are few UX designers and people with research experience. We will report on the development of a UX method adapted to emerging countries and the verification of its usefulness, which is being carried out in this research.


Development of the Next-Generation Quadruped Mobility

Tetsuya Ozasa・Masayasu Date (Suzuki Motor)

Introduces the development process of the next generation quadruped mobility MOQBA, published at JMS23. Processes such as concept planning, structural study, styling development, and prototype model development. Since the mechanism and function are styled as they are, the development was carried out with close cooperation between the technical team and the design team.

  • Session No.84 Engineering Ethics Today (OS)
  • May 24Room G418+G41914:55-17:35
  • Chair: Akira Higashimata (Nissan Motor)
The roles and responsibilities of engineers are changing significantly with the advent of AI-based technologies such as autonomous driving. It is difficult for engineers to solve problems with conventional preventive ethical thinking, and from now on, “ethical engineers'' will become a bridge between society's values and technology, create technology that is accepted by society, and realize well-being. These qualities will become increasingly important. This organized session aims to have an interdisciplinary discussion on the ethical issues faced by modern technology. We look forward to presentations from a multifaceted perspective, not only from the technical side, but also from the humanities and social sciences, education, and human resource development.
Committee on the Ethical Engineers Development
Yasuki Motozawa (Shiga University of Medical Science), Akira Higashimata (Nissan Motor)
No. Title・Author (Affiliation)

[Keynote Address] Engineering-Ethics against Contemporary Paternalism

Yasuki Motozawa (Shiga University of Medical Science)

Driving support technologies based on artificial intelligence have achieved a great leap in recent years; in Japan, demonstration experiments of level 4 autonomous driving will be launched in the near future. However, a contemporary paternalism may arise if social Implementation will be promoted without social understanding and acceptance. The present paper discusses the engineering-ethics required for the contemporary issues.


Brand-New Technology is Accepted by the Society
-Essence for the Self Determination of a Person-

Masahito Hitosugi (Shiga University of Medical Sciende)

Some safety technologies have been developed and applied practically. When a person determines whether use of the brand-new technology or not, the decision is influenced by the social acceptance of the technology. According to the results of surveys at the medical and engineering fields, I show the importance of the social acceptance of the technology.


Science, Technology, and Society in the Context of Acceptance and Diversity

Norihisa Miki (Keio University)

The ethical standards in science and engineering are influenced by societal acceptance. A good example is the evolving ethics regarding LGBTQ rights. However, amidst significant global societal changes, Japanese society is experiencing a 'Galapagos syndrome' originating from its limited diversity. This impacts not only ethics but also industrial competitiveness. This discussion aims to explore the intricate relationship between science, engineering, societal acceptance, and the role of diversity.


Three Layers of Ethics: Considering Ethics in Autonomous Vehicles

Masao Ito (NIL)

When considering the ethics of mobile objects, including autonomous vehicles, it is necessary to consider at least three layers. In macroscopic ethics, ethics is considered at the layer of culture and social structure. Intermediate ethics considers institutions in society. Microethics considers interactions between individuals. These hierarchical divisions do not involve value judgments. Of course, each layer influences each other, but each layer can be considered independently. The recently published ISO39003 uses a five-level classification but mainly extends from macroscopic ethics to discuss the ethics that safe autonomous vehicles should have. Therefore, in order to determine whether or not it is ethically appropriate, we believe that deeper consideration of other layers is necessary.


Social Acceptance of Autonomous Driving Based on Safety Assurance

Atsushi Baba・Akemi Kanehara・Katsuyoshi Nishii (DENSO)

Social acceptance of autonomous driving is a challenging problem whereas the regulations and international standardizations regarding a safety assurance of the autonomous vehicles are undergoing. This paper investigated the social acceptance of autonomous driving by focusing on realistically foreseen accidents of AVs from the safety assurance points of view.


Promoting Safe Driving Awareness in Elderly Drivers through Mobile App Feedback: An Analysis of On-Road Behavioral Changes

Yuiko Kumagai (Honda Motor)・Mitsuki Kimura (Honda Motor China Technology)・Daisuke Inoue・Ryo Takebayashi (Honda Motor)

To reduce car accidents caused by elderly drivers, we proposed a mobile app providing feedback on their unsafe driving behaviors. We conducted a one-month experiment to evaluate the effectiveness of the app. Nineteen participants joined the experiment, using the app in their daily life. As a result, the frequency of unsafe driving behaviors decreased significantly during the experiment compared to before. This result indicates that using the app can promote review and metacognition on their behaviors, thereby reducing the frequency of unsafe driving behaviors.

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